Enma elish - Genesis Connection

The Enma elish - Genesis conection

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Ezekiel's Vision - The Bible story

This version suggests extraterrestial visitors.

A discussion of UFOs in the Old Testament usually includes an evaluation of the vision of Ezekiel, who saw UFOs which resembled "wheels" (Ezekiel 1:11 - 28). This vision does not fit in very well with descriptions of flying saucers, but Ezekiel's experiences are different from the pillar of cloud tradition in that he alone seems to have had the vision. Ezekiel's vision was not so fundamental to the Hebrew faith as the work of Moses, although it may have been a valid prophetic experience. It seems quite logical to suppose that if beings in UFOs spent forty years developing the Hebrew community of faith, appointed prophets would quite likely have occasional contact with the angels of God. But the Biblical faith could have survived without Ezekiel's vision of "wheels"; without the "pillar of cloud" of Moses there would have been no Biblical religion.

Exodus 3:2 "And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of bush; and he looked, and lo, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed.
"This text records that the angel of the Lord was in the "midst" of the bush.
This word midst is important: the Hebrew word bush actually means a thicket, suggesting a clump of bushes, and the "angel" of the Lord was in the midst or middle of a clump of bushes. In other words, it makes sense to suggest that the angel of God in the pillar of cloud and of fire which led the Israelites through the Red Sea and the wilderness had on occasion settled down on the ground into the midst of a clump of bushes - a thicket. The UFO in the thicket made the whole clump of bushes appear to be on fire, but appearently the thicket was not consumed by the presence of the UFO, and this combination of circumstances caught - Moses' attention.

The Bible suggests that a UFO, which seemed cloudlike during the day but which glowed in the dark, served as a beacon or guide which led the Israelites day and night from Egypt to the Red Sea. This UFO deliberately lead the Israelites to the Red Sea, which seemed like a foolish thing to have done because with the Egyptian army coming up from behind, the Hebrews were literally caught between the Pharaoh and the deep blue sea. The Bible says Pharaoh thought the Israelites were "entangled in the land; the wildness has shut them in"(Exodus 14:3). Pharaoh and his army moved in for the kill, with the "pillar" having been a poor guide, unless the being in charge of the UFO knew ahead of time what would happen at the Red Sea!

The Israelites were convinced that they were finished. They said to Moses, "Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness?" ( Exodus 14:11) But as Pharaoh's army moved in, God's angel in the UFO took command of the situation. "Then the angel of God who went before the host of Israel moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them, coming between the host of Egypt and the host of Israel. And there was the cloud and the darkness; and the night passed without one coming near the other all night" (Exodus 14: 19, 20).

And as they still went on and talked , behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven".(2 Kings 2:16; 1 Kings 18:12) When Elijah had apparently finished his life on earth, we read that "the Lord was about to take Elijah up to heaven by a whirlind''. Moses and Elijah were separated by history, so that we need not to expect this brief encounter with a UFO to have brought forth an immediate "pillar of cloud" response from the person who seems to have been the lone witness, Elijah. One gains the impression that it was customary for Elijah to disappear in some sort of UFO, for Elijah's fellow prophets ordered a search for Elijah; "it may be, they said, "that the Spirit of the Lord has caught him up and cast him upon some mountin or into some valley" One other interesting aspect of the departure of Elijah in a sort of UFO is the fact that Elijah and Elisha apparently crossed the Jordan to meet the heavenly whirlwind and chariot. There were fifty men watching in the distance as Elijah and Elisha stood next to the river.

Numbers 9:15 - "On the day that the tabernacle was set up, the cloud covered the tabernacle, the tent of the testimony; and at evening it was over the tabernacle like the appearance of fire until morning."

Ahura Mazda relief in Persia The winged god of war - Enlil/Samael; Legends surrounding Zoroaster, a prophet of the 6th century B.C. has some similar reports and description of flying disk, and flying gods. Ashur, the winged god of war, is very striking and was later an adaptation of a god before him, called Ahura Mazda.

Space ships in the Rig Veda
In ancient Hindu text of India, such as the Rig Veda in the Mahabharata and in the Ramayana there are long descriptions of Vimanas, which are flying machines that could cover vast distances and travel forward, upward and downward. They speak of cars that fly and even instructions how to build them! These Hindu text are full of such examples of how we have been visited by outsiders.
Heroes who march in companies, befriending man, with serpents' fire through strength, ye greet the earth and heaven. Upon the seats, O Maruts, of your chariots, upon the cars stands lightning visible as light.

Two sumer gods and a flying ship Such writers as Zecharia Sitchin and Erich von Daniken have interpeted these tablets to mean we have been visited by a race of advanced extraterrestrias, and humans were created by them because their race was dying and needed gold to shield or protect their planet. So, according to Sitchin and others, mankind was created by this advanced race of beings to mine for gold. "We were just slaved." Zecharia Sitchen has wrote numerous book on this topic and has changed the thinking of thousands of people. check out "Genesis revisited"
Ripon College currently owns 7 cuneiform tablets which have been translated and are online here Tablets

The historical records

2048 B.C - Shulgi dies. Marduk moves to the Land of the Hittites. Abraham ordered to southern Canaan with an elite corps of cavalrymen.

2047 B.C -Amar-Sin (the biblical Amraphel) becomes king of Ur. Abraham goes to Egypt, stays five years, then returns with more troops.

2041 B.C -Guided by Inanna, Amar-Sin forms a coalition of Kings of the East, launches military expedition to Canaan and the Sinai. Its leader is the Elamite Khedor-la'omer. Abraham blocks the advance at the gateway to the Spaceport.

2038 B.C -Shu-Sin replaces Amar-Sin on throne of Ur as the empire disintegrates.

2029 B.C -Ibbi-Sin replaces Shu-Sin. The western provinces increasingly to Marduk.

2024 B.C -Leading his followers, Marduk marches on Sumer, enthrones himself in Babylon. Fighting spreads to central Mesopotamia. Nippur's Holy of Holies is defiled. Enlil demands punishment for Marduk and Nabu; Enki opposes, but his son Nergal sides with Enlil. As Nabu marshals his Canaanite followers to capture the Spaceport, the Great Anunnaki approve of the use of nuclear weapons. Nergal and Ninurta destroy the Spaceport and the errant Canaanite cities.

2023 B.C -The winds carry the radioactive cloud to Sumer. People die a terrible death, animals perish, the water is poisoned, the soil becomes barren. Sumer and its great civilization lie prostrate. Its legacy passes to Abraham's seed as he begets -at age 100- a legitimate heir: Isaac.
Time lines for the last 400,000 Years The Nibiru



Australian Space gods
In Australia there are rock paintings of alien looking creatures. The paintings are located in the Regent River valley in Kimberleys, Australia. These are the gods of creation, Vonjinda and are worshiped by the aborigines in that area.

There are many stories of UFOs and flying disk in almost every ancient culture and almost every account, these alien beings have interbreeded with mankind and produced 'super beings' as their offspring. This kind of tale, we see too clearly in the Greek Myths and stories of Titans as well in the Biblical accounts of Genesis 6:4, and the Book of Enoch as well as other ancient text. In modern society, we have 1000's of reports each year of UFO sightings. They come in the night, and in the day. They leave traces such as the image above and popular 'crop circles'. There is no doubt that something is out there, but what? What are these things and more imporant just who or what are the occupants?

space helmet Dr. V. Raghavan, retired head of the Sanskrit Department of the University of Madras (in India) says that there is scientifical evidence that Aliens came to Ancient India. Dr. Raghavan says: "Fifty years of researching this ancient works convinces me that there are livings beings on other planets, and that they visited earth as far back as 4000 B.C." he continues, "In the Mahabharata (writings), there is notion of divine lighting and ray weapons, even a kind of hypnotic weapon. And in the Ramayana (writings), there is a description of Vimanas, or flying machines, that navigated at great heights with the aid of quicksilver and a great propulsive wind. These were space vehicles are similar to the so-called flying saucers reported throughout the world today." Arcording to him, Ancient Indians had very advanced flying machines. see Vimanas

The Ramayana even describes a beautiful chariot which 'arrived shining, a wonderful divine car that sped through the air'. In another passage, there is mention of a chariot being seen 'sailing overhead like a moon.' "The references in the Mahabharata are no less astounding:

vimana At Rama`s behest, the magnificent chariot rose up to a mountain of cloud with a tremendous din.` Another passage reads: `Bhima flew with his Vimana on an enormous ray which was as brilliant as the sun and made a noise like the thunder of a storm." In the ancient Vymanka-Shastra (science of aeronautics), there is a description of a Vimana: "An apparatus which can go by its own force, from one place to place or globe to globe." Dr. Raghavan points out, "The text`s revelations become even more astounding. Thirty-one parts-of which the machine consists-are described, including a photographing mirror underneath.

The text also enumerates 16 kinds of metal that are needed to construct the flying vehicle: `Metals suitable, lighare 16 kinds. `But only three of them are known to us today. The rest remain untranslatable." Another authority who agrees with Dr. Raghavan`s interpretations is Dr. A.V. Krishna Murty, professor of aeronautics at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. "It is true," Dr. Krishna Murty says, "that the ancient Indian Vedas and other text refer to aeronautics, spaceships, flying machines, ancient astronauts. "A study of the Sanskrit texts has convinced me that ancient India did know the secret of building flying machines-and that those machines were patterned after spaceships coming from other planets."

The Vedic traditions of India tell us that we are now in the Fourth Age of mankind. The Vedas call them the "The Golden Age", "The Silver Age", and "The Bronze Age" and we are now, according to their scriptures in the "The Iron Age". As we approach the end of the 20th century both Native Americans, Mayans, and Incans, prophecies claim that we are coming to the end of an age. Sanskrit texts are filled with references to Gods who fought battles in the sky using Vihmanas equipped with weapons as deadly as any we can deploy in these more enlightened times.

For example, there is a passage in the Ramayana which reads:
The Puspaka car that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravan; that aerial and excellent car going everywhere at will.... that car resembling a bright cloud in the sky.".. and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent car at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere."

In the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian poem of enormous length, we learn that an individual named Asura Maya had a Vimana measuring twelve cubits in circumference, with four strong wheels. The poem is a veritable gold mine of information relating to conflicts between gods who settled their differences apparently using weapons as lethal as the ones we are capable of deploying.

Apart from 'blazing missiles', the poem records the use of other deadly weapons. 'Indra's Dart' operated via a circular 'reflector'. When switched on, it produced a 'shaft of light' which, when focused on any target, immediately 'consumed it with its power'. In one particular exchange, the hero, Krishna, is pursuing his enemy, Salva, in the sky, when Salva's Vimana, the Saubha is made invisiblein some way. Undeterred, Krishna immediately fires off a special weapon: 'I quickly laid on an arrow, which killed by seeking out sound'.

Many other terrible weapons are described, quite matter of factly, in the Mahabharata, but the most fearsome of all is the one used against the Vrishis. The narrative records:
Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and fire, as brilliant as ten thousands suns, rose in all its splendor. It was the unknown weapon, the Iron Thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death which reduced to ashesthe entire race of the Vrishnis and Andhakas.

It is important to note, that these kinds of records are not isolated. They can be cross-correlated with similar reports in other ancient civilizations. ...see Ancient writings

For example, how did the chronicler of the Mahabharata know that a weapon capable of punishing a country with a twelve years' drought could exist? And powerful enough to kill the unborn in their mothers womb? This ancient Indian epic, the Mahabharata, is more comprehensive than the Bible, and even at a conservative estimate its original core is at least 5,000 years old. It is well worth reading this epic in the light of the present day knowledge.

We shall not be surprised when we learn in the Ramayana that Vimanas, i.e. flying machines, navigated at great heights with the aid of quicksilver and a great propulsive wind. the Vimanas could cover vast, distances and could travel forward, upward and downward. Enviably maneuverable space vehicles!.

space ship This quotation comes from the translation by N. Dutt in 1891: "At Rama's behest the magnificent chariot rose up to a mountain of cloud with a tremendous din.." We cannot help noticing that not only is a flying object mentioned again but also that the chronicler talks of a tremendous din.

Here is another passage from the Mahabharata: "Bhisma flew with his Vimana on an enormous ray which was as brilliant as the sun and made a noise like the thunder of a storm." ( C.Roy 1899).

Even imagination needs something to start off. How can the chronicler give descriptions that presuppose at least some idea of rockets and the knowledge that such a vehicle can ride on a ray and cause a terrifying thunder?

Certain numerical data in the Mahabharata are so precise that one gets the impression that the author was writing from first-hand knowledge. Full of repulsion, he describes a weapon that could kill all warriors who wore metal on their bodies. If the warriors learned about the effect of this weapon in time, they tore off all the metal equipment they were wearing, jumped into a river, and washed everything they were wearing, and everything they had come in contact with very thoroughly. Not without reason, as the author explains, for the weapons made the hair and nails fall out. Everything living, he bemoaned, became pale and weak. see Vimanas 2



There is a sandstone cliff, near second mesa on the Hopi Reservation in Arizona. On this cliff is etched a picture of the past, persent, and the future. This site is more commonly known as Hopi Prophecy Rock. The petroglyph depicts the Hopi as emerging from the underground to the surface of the earth. The actual place for this event is a religious site located in the Grand Canyon. The Sioux also say they emerged from underground at a place in the Black Hills known today as Wind Cave.

The story depicted on the prophecy rock continues on by showing how the leading clans of the Hopi migrated in the 4 directions, then turned left-- -forming a Swastika symbol. The clans that followed migrated in the 4 directions- -then turned left---forming reverse Swastika symbol. After journeying in the 4 directions, they were to return to the center. When they reach the center it will be the end of the fourth age.

The Sioux, like the Hopi, traveled in the 4 directions after emerging from the underground. The Sioux also believe that man has evolved through 4 ages, calling them the Age of Fire, Age of Rock, Age of the Bow, and Age of the Pipe. The length of each age is unknown, but the prophecy is that during the time of each age, man would gradually become a "two-heart".

The Hopi Prophecy Rock clearly depicts three "two-heart" individuals . A two-hearted person is one who thinks with his head rather than his heart . This is in reference to the left-brain function of analytical thinking. A person who think with his heart usese the right-brain function of intuitive thinking. Currently modern man is out of balance because we live in a left brained dominated society. We place more emphasis on left-brain modes of thinking vs. right-brain modes of thought.

The Hopi Prophecy Rock shows a junction where the two-hearted people have a choice of choosing to start thinking with their hearts or continue to think with their heads only. If they chose the latter, it will lead to self-destruction; if they chose to think with their hearts they would gradually return to the natural way and their own survival.

On the Hopi Prophecy Rock are 3 circles which represent 3 world-shakings. The story is that people of the Earth would reach a time when they would lose the story of how "we are all related". The Creator would then cause 3 world-shakings to remind the people of our relatedness.

The first world-shaking would be recognized when a bug on ribbon is tossed into the air. This is interpretated as an airplane. The time when airplanes were first used in war was World War I. So World War I would be the first world-shaking.

The second world-shaking would be recognized when man used the Hopi migration symbol (swastika) in war. This was World War II, which is the second world-shaking. The great Oglala Sioux holy man, Nicholas Black Elk, had also foreseen the coming of World War I & II.

The third world-shaking would be recognized by a red cover or cloak

The constellation of Orion's belt is the area of the sky known to the Sioux as the Heart of the White Buffalo constellation. The White Buffalo legend states that a sacred maiden brought a holy pipe to be used by the Sioux. When she departed she said she would return to help the people when they werer in trouble and turmoil. As she turned to leave she turned into a black buffalo, then a red buffalo, then a yellow buffalo, and finally into a white buffalo. Then she went back up into the clouds.

In August of 1994 a white buffalo was born in Wisconsin. Two more were born in May 1996 in South Dakota. One died but the other lived. May 2004, Another white buffalo has been born. Oglala Sioux holy man Dawson No Horse, stated that as we move into the next century, times would be very difficult. Sioux holy man, Black Elk, foresaw the Sacred Hoop of the world's nations coming together soon--- a reference to the thousand years of peace that is to follow the third-world shaking.
The rest of the story.. Hopi Indian Prophecy Rock


The first cities in the world

Historical/archeological documentation


Here dynasties are given for Kish, Uruk, Ur, and Lagash. The early history of all these cities is mythologized in later documents. Thus, Gilgamesh might be regarded as a purely legendary figure if he did not also occur in the ordinary king lists. There is also some trouble, as in Egypt, reading the names. The obscurity of early Sumer is compounded by later misconceptions. The Biblical expression, "Ur of the Chaldees," although used by the great excavator of Ur, C. Leonard Woolley, for the title of a book about the city (Norton Library, 1965), is extremely anachronistic and misleading.

Ur was originally a city of the Sumerians, not of the Chaldeans. The latter were actually Aramaeans, who did not appear in Mesopotamia until nearly a thousand years after the end of the Sumerians as a distinct linguistic community. The Chaldeans dominated Mesopotamia in the "Neo-Babylonian" Period, not only long after the Sumerians but also long after any reasonable date for Abraham -- if Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldees," this must be a different Ur, already Aramaean in Abraham's day, or it is just applying an anarchronistic epithet to a city that later was associated with the Chaldeans. The Sumerian language itself was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, a representative of a now vanished pre-historic language family that may have also included the Elamite, Kassite, Hurrian, and Urartuan languages.

History begins at Sumer because the Sumerians were undoubtedly the first to have a functioning system of writing. The origins of this are now plausibly explained by Denise Schmandt-Besserat (cf. Before Writing, Volume I, From Counting to Cuneiform, University of Texas Press, 1992). For purposes of accounting, contracts, shipping, etc., little clay models were made of the kinds of commodities involved. For convenience, these models were then placed in clay wrappers. Then, so that the contents of the wrappers could be known without breaking them, little drawings of the models began to put on the wrappers. Soon it became obvious that the little drawings by themselves made the models superfluous.

The stylization of the models had already produced a certain abstraction and stylization in the drawings, which thus became proto-cuneiform -- a system already pre-adapted to representing numbers as well as concepts. Since thousands of the clay models have been found, the evidence for the process is abundant. No such antecedents have been found in Egypt or India, where writing began soon after the Sumerian precedent. It is hard not to conclude that Sumerian influence, with the evidence of Sumerian artifacts to prove it, sparked the development of writing in those places. "Akkad

One of Sargon's successors also had a significant name: Shar- kalli- sharri means "king of all kings." Shortened to just "king of kings," this became a standard title for later Assyrian and then Persian monarchs. It even survived in Modern Persian as Shhanshh.


Known Dynasty of Akkad
Sharru-kn, Sargon 2334-2279
Rimush 2278-2270
Manishtusu 2269-2255
Narm-Sn 2254-2218
Shar-kalli-sharri 2217-2193
[interregnum, Guti invasion, c.2193]
Shu-Turul 2168-2154
Ur-nammur 2113-2096
















We believe there are king's names that are missing from this list - namely Marduk.

This next list does include Enlil but it doesn't seem to be old enough.

Kassite Dynasty or
Dynasty III of Babylon
Agum II c.1570
Burnaburiash I
Kashtiliash III
Ulamburiash
Agum III
Kadashman-harbe I
Karaindash
Kurigalzu I
Kadashman-Enlil I
Burnaburiash II 1375-1347
Karahardash 1347-1345
Kurigalzu II 1345-1324
Nazimaruttash 1323-1298
Kadashman-Turgu 1297-1280
Kadashman-Enlil II 1279-1265
Kudur-Enlil 1265-1255
Shagarakti-Shuriash 1255-1243
Kashtiliash IV 1243-1235
Assyrian governors, 1235-1227
Enlil-nadin-shumi
Adad-shuma-iddina
Adad-shuma-us.ur 1218-1189
Melishipak 1188-1174
Marduk-apal-iddina I 1173-1161
Zababa-shuma-iddina 1161-1159
Enlil-nadin-shh 1159-1157












see Kings of Babylon or Kassites and The Earliest Civilizations which has a list from the first dynasty of Kish which dates to 2740BC.

Abraham's great grandfather Raguel was married to Ur-nammu's daughter. He is on the first list. As for the rest - The chronology is poorly known.

"So when the final compilation of the Bible appeared during the years after returning from the Babylonian exile (around 520 BCE). The biblical authors incorporated their philosophy of one deity, Yahweh, into the copies of the scrolls. Whatever attributes a previous god may have had, was retained and given to Yahweh on paper. If the story was holy and the deeds were attributed to Anu, Enki, Enlil, Inanna or Marduk it became the property of the Elohim or Yahweh. Probably Elohim was a clue to uncover those stories that showed an earlier influence from Mesopotamia. Why not just give one name to all the other gods mentioned and save much time? Remember the Bible is trying to prove there is only one god, which is the point of the document. So we can accomplish this by putting all individual names into one general term, plural of course, and for the priests with the secret knowledge that know for themselves, we just incorporated the great stories the public knows and made them specific to our culture and our congregation. Who would know about the older tablets, who would know we borrowed? "

" This plan did work until the late 1880's, and early 1900's when archeologists started to finally dig out the texts in their original tablet form and the scholars translated them. They were astonished to find so much of the source material for the Bible. This plan worked for more than 2,000 years, most people thought the biblical stories were original to the Bible. Even now people are astonished when I tell them there are stories of semi human/semi divine characters and stories of resurrection from 2000 - 3000 years before the time of Jesus and even Abraham."

Early Dynastic I
Ante-diluvian kings, legendary, or earlier than ca. the 26th century BC. Their rules are measured in sars - periods of 3600 years - the next unit up after 60 in Sumerian counting (3600 = 60x60), and in ners - units of 600.

"After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years."

Alulim of Eridug: 8 sars (28800 years)
Alalgar of Eridug: 10 sars (36000 years)
En-Men-Lu-Ana of Bad-Tibira: 12 sars (43200 years)
En-Men-Ana 1, 2
En-Men-Gal-Ana of Bad-Tibira: 8 sars (28800 years)
Dumuzi of Bad-Tibira, the shepherd: 10 sars (36000 years)
En-Sipad-Zid-Ana of Larag: 8 sars (28800 years)
En-Men-Dur-Ana of Zimbir: 5 sars and 5 ners (21000 years)
Ubara-Tutu of Shuruppag: 5 sars and 1 ner (18600 years)
Zin-Suddu 1

1:These two names are present on slightly over half of the versions of the sumerian king lists, but not on others.

2:In the place of En-Men-Ana in some versions of the list is the name Kichu-Ana. from.. The List This list does not give dates just the Kings and how long they ruled.


The modern version of the Bible was probably read by Ezra (about 464 BCE) at the inauguration of the Second holy temple in Jerusalem. Obviously scholars disagree with the exact dating.

With all those tablets that I spoke about before, many different copies of them were found with the same stories. The root to those stories is the Sumerian culture, but after the culture dies off the stories moved to the Akkadians, although they still wrote all the religious documents in the Sumerian language for hundreds of years after Sumerian was not a publicly spoken language. Later on with King Gudea, there was a resurgence of the Sumerian language (2,122 - 2,141 BCE). Then the stories moved to the Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, Canaanites, Hebrews, etc. Archaeologists found translation tablets that had dictionaries carved on them, they said this word in Sumerian is this word in Akkadian, this word in Akkadian is this word in Assyrian, etc.

Many tablets were broken in pieces and fragmented so it took many years to connect the pieces from the museums around the world and put the texts together. But some texts were found in libraries of clay tablets, where they found a shelf full of intact texts, with the catalog list at the front of the shelf. The index list told archaeologists what tablets were missing from the shelf. Obviously the archeologists were amazed to dig up complete libraries of carved clay tablets. (This picture shows many carved texts sitting on shelves. This is in a museum in Turkey.)

Adamu and Adapa are Sumerian names and characters, the original form of the name Adam from the Bible. Adam is always translated as "Man" in English. In Hebrew the word Adama can mean earth (dust of the ground) and Adom is red (like blood) and the word Dam means blood. Do you see how the root name of Adam is closely linked to other words? These double meanings will be important later on.

Heaven, sky, star is An, Anu, the city know as Heliopolis in Egypt used to be called An, or Anu. (The chief worship site of the god Re "Ra".) (Universe is a compound word made up of An-Ki, meaning Heaven and Earth.)

Dumuzi - Sumerian god, used for name of Hebrew month as Tammuz. Crying for Tammuz is mentioned in Bible, Ezekiel 8:12 (about the same time as the Babylonian exile). They were not crying for the name of a month. They were crying in remembrance of Dumuzi the husband of Inanna who was killed and not able to be revived.

The Sumerian god Utu (meaning the [visible] sun) is the same as Shamash in Akkadian; he used the celestial symbol of the solar disk as his representation. The god name Shamash is the same as the Hebrew word for the sun, Shemesh. Imagine that, the word for sun is the same as the god who used the symbol of the sun.

E-din, E-means house, Din means righteous or pure. The Garden of Eden. In Hebrew Din is law; House of Law is like saying courthouse. (Some of you may have heard of the word Moujahadin, which is an Arabic word meaning holy warrior or righteous warrior. This is the name of the Arabic fighters in Afghanistan that the U.S. supported to fight off the Russian invasion.)

The connection to the Tower of Babel:

In Gen 11:1, it says, in my new translation (The Stone Edition, Tanach, ArtScroll series), "The whole Earth was of one language of common purpose. And it came to pass, when they migrated from the east they found a valley in the land of Shinar (Sumer) and settled there." Later on, Yahweh saw what the humans were doing and said "Behold they are one people with one language for all... come let us (plural) descend and there confuse their language, that they should not understand each other."

In Sumerian Mythology by Samuel Noah Kramer from a tablet that was in the Ashmolean museum, "... Harmony-tongued Sumer... To Enlil in one tongue gave speech... a few lines later "... Changed the speech in their mouths, put contention into it, into the speech of man that had (until then) been one."

Was it Yahweh or Enlil that changed the speech of man?
In this case Enlil was changed into Yahweh.

From "Myths from Mesopotamia" by Stephanie Dalley, Epic of Creation, Marduk says "... Let me put blood together and bones too, let me set up primeval man: Man shall be his name.. .", "... The work of the gods shall be imposed on him..." In Atra Hasis, "... Nintu mixed clay, with her flesh and blood, they heard the drumbeat forever after, a ghost (soul) came into existence from the god's flesh and she (Nintu) proclaimed it a living sign." Later on "... I myself created (it), my hands have made (it)..." Remember the meaning of Adom meaning red, it matches up with the use of blood here in both versions. Also the word bone used here is "is-si-im[tu]m" which corresponds to the Hebrew "etzem", "bone" used in Genesis 2:23, in the phrase "etzem me-atzami", "bone of my bones." Stephanie Dalley mentions a possible word play being used here, ghost is "etemmu" and "temu" is intelligence. So the line above could be read "... an intelligence came into existence from the god's flesh."

Genesis 1:26, Elohim said "Let us make man (Adam) in our image, after our likeness..." later on, "... so Elohim created the man (Adam) in his image, in the image of the Elohim, he created him, male and female, he created them." Gen 2:7, "And Yahweh Elohim formed the man (Adam) of dust from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the soul of life and the man (Adam) became a living being." Gen 2:15, "Yahweh Elohim took the man (Adam) and placed him in the Garden of Eden, to work it and to watch it." Remember the meaning of "Adama", "earth" or "dust" as used here. The comparison of "blew into his nostrils the soul of life" is very similar to "a ghost (soul) came into existence from the god's flesh."

Both stories have the same theme, man is created using ingredients, and put to work for the god(s). From L.W. King, "According to each account the existence of a watery chaos preceded the creation of the universe; and the Hebrew word Tehom, translated as "the deep" is the equivalent of the Babylonian Tiamet, the monster of the deep personifying chaos and confusion." Later on King says, "... it may here be added that the employment by Marduk, the creator, of his own blood in the creation of man may perhaps be compared to the Hebrew account of the creation of man in the image and likeness of Elohim. Moreover, the use of the plural in the phrase "let us make man" may be compared with the Babylonian narrative which relates that Marduk imparted his purpose of forming man to his father Ea (Enki), whom he probably afterwards instructed to carry out the actual work of man's creation."

There are so many Sumerian influences, please read anything written by Samuel Noah Kramer, my favorite is, "History Begins at Sumer, 39 Firsts Recorded in Man's History," this will show you influences in the modern world that began in Sumer.

The Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. King Gilgamesh seeks to become immortal, after the death of his friend Enkidu, but fails. This is still a poignant story, since human beings still face loss and grief and death, just as did Gilgamesh. Indeed, Enkidu's vision of death is still chilling:
There is the house whose people sit in darkness; dust is their food and clay their meat. They are clothed like birds with wings for covering, they see no light, they sit in darkness. I entered the house of dust and I saw the kings of the earth, their crowns put away for ever... [N. K. Sanders, Penguin, 1964, p. 89]

More about the Elohims and this entire article.. The work of Zecharia Sitchin - A debate.



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