Traduzca esta página al español
Traduire Cette Page A Français
Übersetzen Sie Diese Seite Zu Deutsch
The Jewish point of view (Rabbinic Judaism)
THE JUBILEE CALENDAR by Mikhael Bauer
A Major Point of Contention between the Zadokite Priesthood and the Hasmonean Priesthood?
The rejection of Jesus as the Messiah will be evident
in this study. Jesus insisted that Moses' Law was the 'Only Law' but over time even that
was changed and fought over.
The Mishnah or Mishna "repetition", from the verb shanah or "to study and review") is a major work
of Rabbinic Judaism, and the first major redaction into written form of Jewish oral traditions, called
the Oral Torah. The word "Mishnah" also means "Secondary" (derived from the adj. thus
named for being both the one written authority (codex) secondary (only) to the Tanakh as a basis
for the passing of judgement, a source and a tool for creating laws, and the first of many books
to complement the Bible in a certain aspect.
Halachikally the Torah Law we follow today is according to the School of Hillel.
The School of Hillel and the School of Shami were so far apart that the Talmud expresses fear
that the One Torah might end up as two torot ("Sanhedrin" 88b). Medrashim say that when
Moshiach comes we will follow the School of Shamai. In other words, the School of Hillel will
become lower, and the School of Shamai higher.
This is difficult, because "in holy things we only elevate and do not lower (maalim bakodesh
veein moridim)." This is because conflicting opinions in the Torah are considered complementary
rather than exclusive, and the words of both Hillel and Shamai, even though they apparently
contradict each other, are considered "the words of the Living God:" "Eleh VaEleh Divei Elokim Chaiim"
This is difficult because the "Oral Tradition", now called the Mishnah or the "Oral Law",
developed as a sage was assigned to teach in an Academy during Shabbat, where he expounded
the Scriptural lesson. His ideas then became known to all the others and what he said became
part of the stream of an Oral Tradition passed on from one to the other and from generation
to generation. Later, to enforce observance of the sage's teaching, it was taught that the Oral
Tradition Law was given at Sinai. It was not written down until the beginning of the Third Century
CE, by Judah ha-Nasi (Judah the Prince).
This was more than a thousand years since the giving of the written Torah. The truth
is that the Mishnah (law) developed over a period of a thousand years. We surely need the Mishnah,
but to say it was given at Sinai is an unacceptable stretch. The tradition of the Mishnah is vital
to our understanding; but now we must consider the evidence of a tradition more than a
thousand years older, and that which properly explains the words of the Torah Itself: the
calendar of the Sadducees.
In even earlier times there were also two schools of thought, that of the Sadducees
(the Zadokite Priesthood), and that of the Pharisees (the Hasmonean Priesthood). Both the
School of Hillel and the School of Shamai are of the Pharisees, who in times past, did not
consider "conflicting opinions in the Torah complementary rather than exclusive" with
regard to the Sadducees. Because of error and political hatred between these two groups
the Holy Temple was destroyed. In this time of the "Restitution of All Things" we must heal
this error before we begin to build the Third Beit HaMikdash.(Temple)
A proper analysis of the relationship between our world and that of the ancient Sadducees
requires the type of thorough survey only a Torah scholar, fluent in the Hebrew language, could
provide. I do not possess these tools. The paradox herein is that one possessed of the proper
qualities and tools would be so steeped in negative prejudice towards an objective study, that
he would be unable to pursue an investigation from an unbiased viewpoint.
It is only natural that, starting from childhood, we carry with us cultural baggage (obviously
with profound historical roots) which portrays the Sadducees as enemies. As a result, this culture
is usually drawn in broad, ugly strokes, identifying Sadducee culture and tradition in general with
crude ideas largely unsupported by fact.
The disadvantage of such an approach is in fact twofold. Firstly, it does not enable us
to get to the crux of the issue and prevents us from understanding the full significance of the
conflict between the two divergent subcultures in a profound way. Turning the opponent into
a "straw man" makes it easier for us to deal with him, but the real battle - in terms of faith
and belief, philosophy and culture - is never addressed. "Eleh VaEleh Divei Elokim Chaiim"
In addition, erecting a wall between us and this portion of our "roots" can lead us to
voluntarily cutting ourselves off from its considerable wealth.
Consider the evidence in the
MMT Scroll The Scroll, (“Rulings
Pertaining to the Torah”(hereinafter: “the scroll”), is one of the concealed scrolls found in the Caves
of Qumran in the Judaean Desert.) and the Manual of Discipline. For example, the
Sons of Zadok (Sadducees) maintained the tradition of the white linen garments of the priesthood
even in their exile to Qumran. The wicked (Pharisee) priest of Jerusalem had forsaken Torah
commandments of wearing the white linen garments of the priesthood.
In light of the current preparation for the reinstitution of the Temple Cult we must
investigate all areas of the conflict between the Sadducees and the Pharisees; so that errors of
the past be not repeated.
As a point of departure, I have chosen one specific subject. This aspect - one of the most
central ones - in the debate between these two groups - regards the calendar: a subject which is
central to Judaism to this day. In doing so the reader must realize the importance of the calendar
to Judaism; and that the writer's intent is not to discredit, but that it is to properly build for the future.
In our future lies a time of Restitution. This restitution must not be built on the errors that
were causes for the events of the 9th of Av and the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash (Temple).
Truth must survive, whatever the cost to the memory of either the School of Hillel, the School of Shamai,
the Sadducees or the Pharisees. After all, the underlying truth is that these became, in the end,
little more than opposing political parties using the same tools which political parties use today.
In the end, they both became caricatures much like the elephant and the donkey are today.
In the beginning, the first had sought spirituality for Israel; the second came to promote strong
central government and legislation to fight against Hellenism.
Toynbee wrote in his book about Greek culture, that the cardinal sin of Greek culture - from
the Christian point of view - was its humanism. Hellenism held man in high esteem and viewed the
world through human lenses. Together with abandoning all the primitive feelings of fear associated
with paganism, the transition to this Greek humanism had done irreparable harm to the concept
of holiness to which the Sadducees held.
Within the Greek Hellenism the sense of awe - not the primitive fear of the early pagans,
but true religious fear, the awe associated with "Holy, holy, holy is the Hashem of Hosts,"
the G-d on High - this diminished and disappeared. When we see gods as humans (only slightly
more sophisticated, perhaps) or as philosophical abstractions, then there is no longer any room
for a sense of fear, awe or majesty.
This led to the obliteration in Greek culture of a category fundamental to us: commandments.
In our world, man sees himself first and foremost as someone who is commanded, as the bearer
of a Divine mission, as carrying upon his shoulders a task which must be fulfilled. This concept is
generally lacking in the classical Greek world of Plato and Aristotle, and it was to fight for this
concept that the Pharisees became a political force.
It appears that the REAL justification for the Oral Law being "inspired" -- is that it teaches
the lunar-solar calendar. It also appears that the REAL justification for the lunar-solar calendar --
is that it is defined in the Oral Law. When these two justifications are taken together, they offer
little confidence in either. When posed the question, "Is there any REAL justification for the
teaching that the Talmud (Oral Law) was given to Moses at the same time as the Torah was
given? What part of the Oral Law REALLY WAS given when the Torah was given?" Rabbi
Mordechai Becher and the Rabbis at Ohr Somayach Institutions, Jerusalem, give us the
following answer, which confirms the above conclusion:
"Good question, which is hard to do justice to in an email piece. I suggest a book called
"The Infinite Chain: Torah, Mesorah and Man" by Rabbi Natan Lopez-Cordoza. I will try to answer
your question briefly - In order to even read the Written Torah which is without vowels or
punctuation requires an oral tradition. In addition for emphasis, emotion, pauses and continuity
as well as for legal definitions, such as Work on Sabbath, affliction on Yom kippur, life, day, etc.
In other words the Torah is incomprehensible without Oral traditions. Was the author being
cruel? Or did He provide additional explanations? We say that the Oral Law is the Author's
explanation of the Written Law In fact, it is mentioned in the Torah itself - "And you shall
slaughter your flocks and cattle... as I have commanded you" - Deuteronomy 12:21 even
though nowhere in the written law is the method of slaughter explained. In addition there
are a number of pieces of evidence that indicate an ancient oral tradition."
"Uniform acceptance of basic principles. (Even Karaites and Sadducees) by worldwide Jewish
communities throughout history.
"Artifacts predating redaction of Mishnah. e.g. Tefilin, Mikvaot - that conform exactly to
the oral law requirements. (Yadin, Qumran, Masad)
c) "Septuagint's Greek translations. e.g. tashbitu = destroy (Exodus 12:15, B.T. Pesachim
21a - is usually in concurrence with the oral "day after Shabbat" (Leviticus 23:11) = "day after
d) "Prophets accept Oral Law as given. E.g. Carrying and commerce on Sabbath (Jeremiah
e) "Judah the Prince lived in the Roman Empire, most Jews live in the Persian Empire.
Nevertheless the Mishnah was universally accepted.
f) "Consistency and universality of complex calendar among all communities, even without
communications. And the entire calendar is based mainly on Oral tradition.
" RECENT FINDINGS At Qumran in 1947, there were apocalyptic scrolls found, and among them
the Books of Jubilees and the Second Mikdash (law) writings of Enoch I which discuss the calendar and
dating system by which these people lived. Scholars had been attentive of the Apocryphal Calendar
before this find, but interest was renewed with the discovery of these scrolls by which the Qumran
sect lived. It is based on 364 days per year. The year is divided into four periods (to correspond to
the four seasons of the year), of 13 weeks or 91 days in each period. There are 12 months in each
year or a total of 52 weeks. By using this exact measure and beginning the year on the Wednesday
just after the vernal equinox, the holy days fall exactly on the same day, in the same month, every year.
This calendar warrants extensive study, as there are now numerous proofs it was the
calendar used by Abraham, King Solomon, King David, and High Priest Zadok in the First Holy
Mikdash. A different calendar was used in the Second Commonwealth, but that Mikdash had
no Presence, no Ark of the Covenant, and no means for its apostate priesthood to communicate
directly with Hashem. In fact, it is recorded that 300 high priests during the second Mikdash
period, died when they went into the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur. Something, perhaps many
things, were wrong with the Second Mikdash Cult.
A team of scholars was appointed to study the scrolls in 1952. They became an elite and
secretive clique. In 1991 this monopoly was effectively broken when the Huntington Library in
California announced it would allow public access to its collection of Dead Sea Scrolls photographs.
This was soon followed by the publication of a Facsimile Edition by the Biblical Archaeology Society
in Washington, D.C. Until this time scholars previously controlling access to the Scrolls had been
publicly contending that there was nothing interesting in the remaining unpublished Scrolls and
nothing throwing further light on Judaism and Christianity's rise in Palestine. (The Dead Sea
Scrolls Uncovered, Professor Robert Eisenman & Michael Wise).
Another book,"Dead Sea Scrolls Deception" by Michael Beigent and Richard
Leigh however reveals that this is a 'cover up' of things in the scrolls that the 'Catholic' researchers
do not want us to see.
The Talmud does not explain the calendar exactly, but does mention the argument of the
calendars between the Pharisees and Sadducees.
THE SECOND MIKDASH
The Torah tells us that as the Second Mikdash was dedicated, the joyous noises of the
happy Jews were drowned out by the grief-stricken cries of those older people who remembered
the glory of the Solomon's Mikdash. There was not a lot of money in Jerusalem in those years,
and worse still, there were not a lot of Jews; most had decided to stay behind in the strong
Torah-communities of the exile rather than face the dangers and discomfort of settling the
Holy Land. As if that wasn't enough, the local political climate at the birth of the second
commonwealth was far from stable. Kussim (Samaritans), struggling for the favor of the
Persian king, fought physical and political battles against the fragile Jewish community.
The community itself was small and at times badly weakened by ignorance of Torah's
commandments and even intermarriage.
(Nechemiya 9, 2). The result of all the turmoil was a Mikdash that - while grand - couldn't
compare to its predecessor. How could it be otherwise? The builders literally had to go about
their work with sword in one hand (Nechemiya 4,15) and tools in the other. This second Mikdash
lacked the ark (it had been buried decades before the previous destruction to protect it from
the hands of the enemy); the high priest had no breastplate from which to consult G-d's advice
(either the stones were missing or, according to another opinion, were there, but did not light
up in response to questions); there were fewer open miracles with which to see the Divine
presence and the materials and architecture of the building itself were disappointing. But it
was better than exile.
The fact was, the whole period of the second empire was anyway a kind of half-exile.
The sages, led by the 120 members of the Anshei Knesset Hagadol (Men of the Great Assembly),
actually used the years of the Second Commonwealth as a preparation for the longer exile they
knew would come. It was this body which, among other things, instituted much of the siddur
(prayerbook) that we have today.
These were declining years for the Jewish people. Just over the horizon lay a seemingly
endless exile. The future was bleak and the world's various powers (The Persians, Greeks and
Romans) would not leave the little land and its people to enjoy its present either. But for the
existence of our great leaders, like Shimon Hatzadik, Shemaya and Avtalion, Hillel and Shamai
and Rabbi Akiva, our people would long before have been swallowed up by the sands of time.
It was only the Torah - the Torah of those leaders - that acted as a beacon in the dark night
to define us as a nation and show us the path to follow.
One of the earliest high priests of the Second Mikdash, Shimon Hatzadik was also one
of the most famous. It was Shimon who was shown the image of a holy man clothed in white
every Yom Kipur as he left the holy of holies (on the fortieth year, the last of his life, the image
wore black - TB Menachos 109b). It was Shimon who, throughout his term as high priest Godol,
merited that the oil in the "western" cup of the menora burned longer than any other (even
though it was lit last) a clear, yet daily, miracle (TB Yoma 39a).
It was a very young Shimon who, at the head of a procession of Jerusalem's sages, set
out to greet the great emperor, Alexander. The Greek, as far as anyone knew, was planning to
destroy Jerusalem and end what he saw as its opposition to his rule. At the head of his huge army,
astride his tall horse, Alexander was not likely to give the Jews much time to plead their case.
But it was the face of Shimon that inspired the king to dismount and kneel on the ground before
the Rabbi. "This face," explained Alexander, "appeared to me before every battle which I won..."
(TB Yoma 69a) It was Shimon who strengthened the walls of the Holy City, and with them, the
hearts of the dispirited Jews who had given up everything to live near the Mikdash. Shimon
Hatzadik, A Sadducee of the Line of Zadok served as High Priest for 40 years. It was he who,
as much as anyone, built the foundation for Jewish life in Israel for the next four hundred
years, and by extension, set the tone for Jewish life until this day yet he, too, endured a
In one of the great ironies of history, Shimon Hatzadik, one of our people's greatest teachers,
seemed to have had at least one son who was somehow ignorant in Torah-matters. The Talmud
(Menachos 109b) leaves us with the story of Shimon, who, nearing death, instructed his younger
son, Chonyo, to take over as high priest. Chonyo, it seems, wished not to embarrass his older brother,
Shimi, and gave up the position. But as the day approached for Shimi to take on his new responsibilities,
Chonyo regretted his generosity. He plotted to have his brother expelled from the position - and perhaps
even killed! How did he do it? Knowing that his brother knew little about the Mikdash service, Chonyo
offered to instruct Shimi on the details of the induction service. "Put on these clothes," he told his
older brother, handing him women's clothing, "and meet me tomorrow morning in the Mikdash
courtyard." The next day, Chonyo waited with all the rest of the priests for his brother's arrival.
When Shimi came, dressed as he was, Chonyo pointed and shouted: "Look at that man! He
promised his wife that as a sign of his love for her, he would wear her clothes the day he became
The other priests chased Shimi, intending to punish him for disgracing the Mikdash. But
before they could do anything, Shimi managed to figure out what had happened and told the
whole story. Now the priests' attention turned back to Chonyo, the real culprit... By the time
all the dust had settled, Shimon Hatzadik's brother, Eliezer, was Kohen Godol and Chonyo was
in Alexandria, Egypt. Once there, Chonyo built an altar and began to attract a following among
the local gentiles, his goal, to teach the people about the true worship of the One G-d. No Jew
offered sacrifices on this altar as Jewish sacrifices outside of the Mikdash in Jerusalem were
(and still are) strictly forbidden. Eventually, Chonyo returned to Jerusalem and took up the
position of high priest he had lost so many years before. Three generations later, another
Chonyo (a direct descendent of Shimon Hatzadik's son) travelled to Egypt. He too built an
altar - actually a replica from the Mikdash in Jerusalem - and there Jews offered their own
(forbidden) sacrifices. Such was the strange state of the Jewish community of Alexandria.
...And if you think a Jewish Mikdash in Alexandria was strange, wait 'till you hear about Yeb!
Around ninety years ago, archaeologists working near the present-day site of the Aswan Dam (on
the Nile River) discovered a collection of perfectly preserved papyrus letters. The letters seemed
to be the correspondence of the soldiers of a Persian garrison stationed in the area towards the
beginning of the Second Mikdash period. What is interesting to us, is that these paid soldiers -
and their families who lived alongside them - were Jewish! They lived in the garrison town for
generations, cut off from Jewish life. Reading the letters (written originally in Aramaic) we can
learn a great deal about the Jewish life of the period. For one thing, these Jews had a temple
dedicated to idol worship. Apparently, some Egyptian vandals destroyed their temple and the
Jews applied to the Persian governor in Alexandria for permission to rebuild it. They were
unsuccessful. Later they wrote to the Jewish governor in Jerusalem from whom they
received the permission to do what they wanted. In another letter, the high priest in
Jerusalem found it necessary to inform the people of Yeb that the festival of Passover was
approaching and that it was forbidden to eat chometz for the whole week. It is hard to imagine
the ignorance that plagued such Jews EVEN WHILE THE MIKDASH STILL STOOD!
THE LINGERING EXILE
The majority of Jews chose not to follow Ezra up to the Holy Land to rebuild the Second
Mikdash. While the communities of the exile contributed funds and resources to the project, they
were noticeably missing from the shattered city. Ezra, the leader of his generation, spoke harshly
about those who stayed behind and on some of them, even invoked curses. The Jewish world
was much bigger than one might think:. Babylonia: (modern-day Iraq) was the main Torah
community and was host to the greatest Jewish population in the world. Already at the time
of the destruction of the first Mikdash, the Babylonian community was strong and ready to
receive and support the new exiles. It was one of G-d's many kindnesses that He arranged
for Torah leaders to be brought to Babylonia to prepare a home, decades before the mass
of Jewish exiles would arrive. North Africa: To this day, the island of Djerba is home to an
ancient Jewish community. Strangely enough, they are nearly all priests (kohanim, a few
yisroelim and no leviim at all. Legend has it that Ezra cursed the leviim of Djerba for not
going to Jerusalem when they were needed. There is also a legend that any levy who goes
to Djerba, will die within a year. don't personally know anyone who's put it to the test. France:
France, four hundred years BEFORE the building of the first Mikdash.
There is a tradition from the Sefer Meiros Eynayim (a commentator on Shulchan Aruch,
quoted by She'eris Yisroel), that there were members of the tribe of Benjamin who escaped
from the Jewish civil war - fought just one hundred years after the exodus from Egypt (see
Judges, chapters 19 and 20) - and ran to France. One of the communities they founded was
the famous city of Worms (Rashi's home). The Sefer Meiros Eynayim contends that one of the
reasons the city of Worms suffered so badly at the hands of the medieval crusaders was
because their ancestors had failed to answer Ezra's plea for immigrants to the fledgling
Jewish community in Jerusalem. The hand of the old sage, Ezra, reaches far indeed.
The name Sadducee is derived from that of Zadok, the high priest of the Jerusalem
Mikdash in the time of Solomon. But what proof have we that these Zaddikim were, in fact
the rightful priesthood, expelled from the Mikdash by an apostate sect? What proof have
they offered to us that their laws and customs bear the mark of authenticity?
Proof of the Zaddikim's authenticity lies in the evidence that they were the keepers of
the true implements of the Mikdash Cult from the First Temple (Mikdash). Since the time of King
Solomon, virtually without interruption up until the time of the Hasmonean Revolt, the
Zadokite Priests had been in control of the Jerusalem Mikdash. They trace their ancestry back
to the high priest Zadok, who officiated in King Solomon's Mikdash. It was members of this group
who were to become known as Sadducees to the Pharisees. In other words, the Sadducees
were the priestly aristocracy, The prophet Ezekiel (Ezek. 44:9-16) assigned the priestly duties
exclusively to this family.
In fact, according to the T'nach, only the sons of Zadok (the Zaddikim or Sadducees) will have
the right to make sacrifices in the New Mikdash; see Ezek. 40:46. This means that the Dynasty of
Zadok, the First High Priest in the Mikdash, will be restored. These items would include such items
as the Mikdash incense, the anointing oil of the priesthood, the ashes of the Red Heifer, and the
Ark of the Covenant.
Josephus, himself a priest of the Pharisees who had no knowledge of the Oral Law being
given on Mt. Sinai, relates that the Sadducees reflected the traditions of the Fathers, which seems
to have been the forerunner of the Oral Law, and was also observed as law by the Pharisees. It
follows then that at the time of the First Holy Mikdash, it was not taught that the Oral Law was
given to Moses on Mt. Sinai. On the contrary, a smaller body of law was, at that time, referred
to as TRADITION. Both groups adhered to this tradition. To justify and venerate their own rulings,
the Pharisees began to call their own legislation the very Word of G-d. In this way they set
themselves above their vanquished foe, the Sadducees, and rewrote history. The truth, however,
has come back to bite them in the form of the Dead Sea Scrolls of the Sadducees.
Dr. Lawrence Schiffman, Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at New York University in the
Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies and also in the Department of Near Eastern Languages
and Literature, focused on the unique Halakhah peculiar to the Dead Sea sect. He began his study
of the legal material with is doctoral dissertation in 1974, which dealt with "The Halakhah at Qumran."
A year later, in 1975, his dissertation was published in a volume by the same name, that dealt
with the "conceptual framework behind the legal material in the Qumran corpus, how the sect derived
its law, and how its members perceived this process. In 1991, he was appointed to the team
publishing and researching the Dead Sea Scrolls. Dr. Schiffman has the respect of his contemporaries
in Dead Sea Scrolls research as evidenced by the comments of Herschel Shanks and Emanuel Tov
on the cover of his recent book, "Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls". Regarding the Qumran Sect, he
tells us that: "The earliest members must have been Sadducees unwilling to accept the status quo
establishment in the aftermath of the Maccabean revolt. The Maccabees, by replacing the Zadokite
high priesthood with their own, reduced the Zadokites to a subsidiary position for as long as
Hasmonean rule lasted. Even after leaving Jerusalem, the Dead Sea sect continued to refer
to its leaders as the 'Sons of Zadok'. These were indeed Sadducees who protested the imposition
of Pharisaic views in the Temple under the Hasmonean priests."
From the text of the Zadokites Fragments found in the Cairo genizah, we learn that "in
ancient times Israel went astray." As a result G-d "hid His face" and allowed the destruction of
the First Mikdash (Temple) in 586 BCE, "yet a remnant of the defeated people remained," and it was they,
who ultimately formed the sect." The Sadducee sect at Qumran, by their way of life and beliefs,
claimed to be this remnant and the true Israel. The text below is telling us that the sect arose
from Israel (the people) and from Aaron (the priesthood).
It also presents a chronological date for the formation of the Qumran Sadducee sect:
"And in the period of wrath, three hundred and ninety years after He handed it (the Mikdash) over
to Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon, He remembered them (Israel) and caused to grow from Israel
and Aaron the root of a plant (i.e. the sect)." Zadokite Fragments 1:5-7.THE PHARISEES Modern
Rabbinic Judaism is descended from the Pharisees, who appeared (by name) suddenly in history
as a distinct entity during the Hasmonean period, in the time of Jonathan Maccabee (150 BCE).
These "Rabbinic sources trace their history back to the 'Men of the Great Assembly', who are
said to have provided the religious leadership for Israel in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods.
" When the "Pharisees appear in Hasmonean times, they are part of a governing council
that serves in coalition with the Sadducees, with whom they sought to advance their vision of
how the Jewish People should live and govern themselves." Encyclopedia Judaica informs us that
the name Pharisee is derived from the Hebrew word "perushim"; which means "cast out".
Originally the Sadducees cast the perushim out of the Sanhedrin for their heretical ideas.
These "cast out" Perushim, usurped the Zadokite Dynasty with the Hasmonean Dynasty --
and only 35% of the time did they come out of the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur, alive.
The Gemara (Yoma 9a) states that the first Holy Mikdash where the Dynasty of Zadok
served and which stood for 410 years, only had 18 High Priests who served in it. Tosafot state
that Divrei Hayamim (I Chronicles 5:36) itemizes only eight High Priests who served.
In the second Holy Mikdash, which abided for 420 years, more than 300 Pharisee priests
served. If you subtract the 40 years which Shimeon the Righteous served, the 80 years which
Yochanan the High Priest served, the 10 years which Yishmael b. Fabi served or, as some say,
the 11 years of Rabbi Eleazar b. Charsum, and then count the number of High Priests from
then on -- you will find that none of them completed his year in office. The Jewish Press,
Friday, May 9, 1997 states: "They all died when they entered the Holy of Holies on Yom
Kippur to pray for a good year for all Jews. This happened because they were corrupt. They
bought the high priestly office for money and also accepted bribes."
AN ABOMINATION THAT MAKES DESOLATE
The people were so accustomed to see the priests die that they tied a rope around them
and, when they didn't walk out from the Holy of Holies, the people knew they had died and they
were then pulled out, for no one else was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies.
With the release of 4QMMT ("The Halakhic Letter" from the Dead Sea Scrolls) in 1985, the
Sadducees exiled to Qumran once again spoke from their graves. The letter asserts that when an
upper vessel, the source of a liquid stream is pure and the lower vessel is not, if the stream
connects both liquids, then the impurity is also in the upper vessel. This assertion is even found
in the Mishnah: "The Sadducees say: 'We complain against you Pharisees, for you declare pure
the (poured out) liquid stream'". M Yadayim 4:7. The laws regarding the Red Heifer are also
explained according to the Sadducean position.
One reason for HaShem to strike dead these 300 Perushim, who usurped the Zadokite
Dynasty with the Hasmonean Dynasty; was called "deliberate contamination to undermine the
influence of the Sadducees". Rabbi Chaim Richman, in his book The Mystery of the Red Heifer -
Divine Promise of Purity (vanity published, 1997) describes this deliberate contamination (making
the High Priest unfit) before he officiated the burning of the red heifer: "...Meanwhile, the elders
of Israel left the Temple earlier, and already reached the place on the Mount of Olives prior
to the arrival of the priest and his entourage. They embarked across the bridge by foot, as
opposed to riding, to demonstrate how much they cherished the commandment of G-d. (sic)
"At the Place of Burning, they await the arrival of the procession. The Mishna records that
an unusual procedure took place once the priest reached them: After the entire week during which
he was so carefully guarded from the slightest shadow of impurity, the elders would deliberately
contaminate him! Once again, this was done on account of the serious dispute between the Sages
(sic) and the Sadducees. The traditional Mosaic law which states that immersion is sufficient
purification for the attending priest, and that it is unnecessary for him to wait until after
sunset, was not accepted by the Sadducees. By not accepting any traditional laws, the
Sadducees declared war on the system established by the G-d of Israel Himself. (sic) In
order to prove and maintain the authority and authenticity of these laws, the sages were
careful at such an important and public occasion as the burning of a new heifer, to undermine
the seditious Saduccean influence with the greatest publicity, and in the most ostentatious
manner, as possible.
"The sages (sic) of Israel placed their hands upon the priest's head. (Some opinions
hold that it was by this laying of the hands that they made him impure; other authorities
maintain that they touched him with some other source of impurity). To facilitate the purpose
of immediate purification from this contamination (so that he would burn the heifer directly,
without waiting, as per the prevailing opinion of the sages), there was a special mikveh built
at this spot for the kohen to immerse himself before beginning his task. With their hands
upon his head, the elders declared: 'My master, the High Priest! Immerse yourself once!'
"The priest descended into the Chamber of Immersion and purified (sic) himself,
and came up and dried himself. Through this act of contamination and purification, witnessed
by a large assembly in the presence of the elders of Israel, the influence of the Sadducees
and their illicit, unfounded rulings was silenced. At the same time, with the exception of
this necessarily deliberate device which had its emphasis on the one specific halachic point
of not waiting until sunset, the hallmark of the entire procedure was purity in the highest
degree (sic). The most elaborate precautions had been taken for that purpose, as we have
seen throughout." (emphasis added).
Of course, all who were sprinkled from the resultant impure ashes were rendered unclean,
and when the ritually impure High Priest from the usurping Hasmonean dynasty entered into the
Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur, he was struck dead and pulled away from the Presence with a rope.
This being the case, one must wonder if a prudent priesthood would venture to use the ashes
from the Second Holy Mikdash; even if they were found! To do so would bring the curse which
fell upon the apostate Hasmonean Dynasty. If the Third Holy Mikdash is to be built and the
priesthood purified and restored: It is of major importance that the ancient Halakhah and
calendar be restored, and the Priesthood and Temple worship be kept pure.
THE COPPER SCROLL
The Copper Scroll from the Qumran Community offers this proof, for researchers studying
the Copper Scroll have already located The Qetoret (Mikdash Incense) found in 1992 dig:
An estimated 600 lbs. of what looked like "reddish earth" was uncovered at the North
entrance of the Cave of the Column by excavation volunteers in the late Spring of 1992. Team
members reported detecting the smell of cinnamon present in the substance. Preliminary analysis
by Dr. Marvin Antelman of the Wiezmann Institute revealed that the find was indeed, organic.
"Density indicates that the material which is lighter than water is excluded from the category
of red soil or red minerals......also the high percentage of ash is typical of plant source." Dr.
Antelman later told the Jerusalem Post in a story dated May 1, 1992, "I'm very excited about
this find. He added that he had positively identified borit karshina (karsina lye) which is one
of the ingredients spelled out in the Talmud."
Recently, Dr. Terry Hutter performed a more exhaustive analysis and stated that, "the
red-brown spice sample is composed of nine different and unique plants. The plants are
recognizable both by pollen and organic maceral types." Dr. Hutter listed these as: Three kinds
of Cinnamon, Saffron, Balsam, Myrrh, Galbanum, Cassia, and Frankincense.
The quantity of the Incense is also significant. It corresponds to the amount prepared for
one year of daily Temple service. The Torah only lists four ingredients for the Qetoret. The Mishna
lists eleven, in addition to Sodom salt and Karcina lye. The latter text also tells of the Avtinas
family and how they were charged with the secret of compounding these precious spices. The
fragrance of the Qetoret was said to be so powerful that that when it was being prepared, one
could smell it as far away as Jericho, 12 miles to the north of Qumran.
Curiously, when young Muhammed edh-Dhib, discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, only two
of the ten clay jars contained anything. One of the pots held the Scrolls and the other was filled with
"reddish earth"; Shemen Afarshimon.
The Shemen Afarismon, the Holy Anointing Oil, from the Holy Temple, was found in April, 1988
by the VJRI excavation team. After intensive testing by the Pharmaceutical Department of Hebrew
University, financed by the VJRI, the substance inside the small juglet was verified to indeed be
the Shemen Afarshimon of Psalm 133.
The oil was used as the fragrance on the oblation for a sweet smelling savor on the sacrifices.
It was also used as the Holy Anointing Oil for the priest, prophets and kings.
The finding of the oil was important for two reasons. It is the first item to be found from
the Second Temple period and is one of the items listed among the treasures in the Copper Scroll.
On February 15, 1989, the news of the find was broken to the public by the New York Times
During the ensuing few weeks, most major news media institutions, ABC, CBS, NBC and CNN,
carried the story on national and international television. In October, 1989, National Geographic
Magazine featured the find, followed by Omni Magazine in December of the same year. Countless
other news sources carried the story for their publications. Few scholars indeed have admitted
the significance of this find in relation to the identity of the Qumran Community, nor have they
considered the possibility these were the rightful Mikdash Priesthood. Still, Allegro makes it
abundantly clear that until the first Exile, Israel observed the solar Jubilee Calendar as the
Zaddikim teach (while speaking of the Qumran Community as "Essenes". -- The scrolls
themselves, however, speak of the Qumran Community as the Sons of Zadok, the Zaddikim
(the Righteous Ones). The Hebrew term "Zaddikim" is translated to English as "Sadducees".
These were the rightful lineage of King David's anointed high priest, the Kohen Gadol.
"It is clear from the Scrolls and certain apocryphal works like the books of Jubilees and Enoch,
long known but now recognized as having emanated from Essene circles, that the sectarians observed
their religious festivals according to a solar-based calendar, whereas the official Temple cultus [during
the Second Temple Era] was regulated according to lunar observations. It has been shown that, in fact,
the Essene system was the more ancient and traditional, traceable in literature to the time of the Exile
at least, and, as with so much of Essene thinking, having its roots in the very heart of the old
agricultural life of ancient Israel. The official adoption of a 'new-fangled' lunar reckoning may have
been no older than the later Maccabean leadership, when it seemed more important to integrate
Judaism closer into the Hellenistic world... If some form of dual-calendar compromise had ever
been tried, the Hellenistic lunar arrangement being followed for diplomatic and commercial purposes,
and the traditional solar reckoning being maintained for cultic use, it did not apparently satisfy
the purist inclinations of the Essenes" (Allegro, Myth, p. 34).
Originally, Israel reckoned time and set festivals according to the ancient solar calendar
the Sumerians or Babylonians used only for astronomical purposes. This calendar was very
similar to the solar calendar used by the Egyptians during Israel's 430 year captivity there.
Since the Karaites and Falashas did not follow the direction of the Pharisaic school during and
after the Babylonian Captivity; they retained the solar "Jubilee" Calendar. The lunar calendar
originally was useful only to the Babylonians for purposes of the Babylonian Mystery-Religion.
By observation of the dates in the T'nach that the ancient patriarchs labored and began journeys
you may arrive at what calendar they used. Only if they were keeping the Jubilee calendar did
the dates they began journeys fall on all days of the week but Shabbat. All those who observe
the Rabbinic lunar calendar celebrate the High Holy Days at the wrong time.
In fact, during the Babylonian captivity after the first Commonwealth the Jewish people
abandoned not only the Hebrew Calendar and customs - but also the Hebrew Alphabet. What
we today consider the Hebrew Alphabet, Customs, and Calendar - is in truth Babylonian,
and Assyrian (in the case of the modern alphabet, the Ksav Ashuris: Munk, p. 233).
The modern Hebrew script is called Ksav Ashuris because it is of Assyrian origin
("Sanhedrin", 21b- 22a). The Torah was first written in Ksav Ivri (Ancient Hebrew Script).
It was from this ancient script the Greeks derived their alphabet. Rabbinic Judaism abandoned
it to the Samaritans (calling them the Cuthites) supposedly because it was "mundane" and
"ungainly" ("Sanhedrin", 21b). Even the Torah's command to wear tassels (tzit-tzit) with a
thread of blue is by and large ignored today. Only a few orthodox Jews have begun again
to wear the tekhelet.
But regarding the calendar, the Torah teaches the sun is to govern "their appointed days"
and the moon, the season. The days are determined by the travel of the sun's annual circuit through
the 6 gates of the eastern horizon.
"It was an ancient custom among the Israelites to observe the new moon as a semi-festival,
because the moon, being of dark substance and having to receive light from another planet, reflects
the fate of Israel in this world (Fisch, p. 161). Obadiah Ben-Jacob Sforno (1475-1550) showed this
to be the reason for "your"(Num. 28:11) in relation to the new moon and not to other festivals, and
is undoubtedly the original "justification" used for adopting the Babylonian lunar calendar - which
must have existed alongside Moshe's "Jubilee" calendar until into the Hasmonean Dynasty.
Notice that Moshe was instructed to give no changes to the then extant calendar, other
than when the new year was to begin. At the time they left Egypt, after their 430 year sojourn
there, they could have been using no other calendar than the Solar Calendar. Since this calendar
was accurate, certainly much more so than the Babylonian lunar calendar (remember that the
Babylonians used the solar calendar for astronomical purposes), Torah did not institute another.
The Egyptian calendar was solar in nature, with 12 months of 30 days and five intercalary days
The Encyclopedia of Religion And Ethics records that even into the 9th Century C.E. remaining
Zaddikim observed Solar months of 30 days, similar to this Egyptian Solar Calendar. The Zaddikim
(called the Sadducees in the English Bible) were a sect formed of Priests, merchants, and aristocrats.
Their name derives from Zadok, the high priest in the days of King David. Y'chezkel (Ezekiel 40:46;
43:19 & 44:10-15) selected this family as worthy of being entrusted with the control of the Mikdash.
They were the conservative priestly group, holding to the older doctrines.
The Qumran Community, composed of these Zaddikim observed the Solar Jubilee Calendar.
Moshe (Moses) had been educated as a prince in Egypt. His knowledge of the solar calendar was
evidently passed to his brother Aaron; and this knowledge remained with Aaron and the priesthood.
Egypt kept a year of 365 days. Every four years this calendar would fall one day short of the solar cycle.
The Jubilee (solar) calendar, with 364 days, would fall five days short in the same period of time.
However by observing the Biblical command concerning when to begin the year, this calendar would
remain correct - and the High Holy Days would fall on the same day of the week every year.
Originally then, it seems observation of the New Moon was not for the purpose of determining
the calendar - but only so that the New Moons might be observed as Hashem
Even the Mishna ("Tosefta Nazir") acknowledges the existence of the solar year and sets its length
at 364 days. Jehuda the Persian, in the 9th Century CE, wrote that the Jews "had always reckoned
by solar months (Sachau, p. 69). This would seem to indicate Israel was doing exactly as Babylon:
reckoning the year by the solar calendar, but using a lunar calendar for religious purposes.
"The distinguished scholar Geza Vermes has written 'To the (Qumran) Community this
(the Lunar calendar) was an abomination of the Gentiles and directly counter to the certain
Law from the mouth of God. It had itself (the Qumran Community) inherited, probably from
priestly circles, a solar calendar based on the laws of the Great Light in heaven (Gen. 1:14)
in which the year was divided into fifty-two weeks exactly; into, that is to say, four seasons
of thirteen weeks'" (Pfeiffer, p. 75; Levy, 1983). Hebrew University Professor S. Talmon's book,
"The World of Qumran from Within," contains a table outlining the Jubilee solar calendar,
which, unlike the lunar calendar of Rabbinic Judaism, is remarkable for its regularity. Professor
Talmon shows the first day of the New Year always falls on Wednesday. This meant that the
Day of Atonement always fell on a Friday; Sukkot on a Wednesday; Pesach on a Wednesday;
and the Feast of Weeks on a Sunday.
Shemaryahu Talmon. The World of Qumran from Within
Found among the other scrolls at Qumran were the Book of Jubilees (Sefer Yobel) and
the Book of Enoch; both of which explain the Hebrew version of the solar calendar. Until
these scrolls were found at Qumran they had been only extant in the Ethiopic and Greek,
since the early 1800's. The Temple Scroll from Qumran affirms that this was the calendar
used by the Community; besides being the calendar used by the Zaddikim (Sadducees).
The Encyclopedia Judaica advises that the Falasha Jews use the calendar of the Book
of Jubilees, and base their ritual observances on it (Vol. 10, p. 326). Kenneth A. Strand
(Strand, pp. 33-45) advances persuasive arguments that "the 364 days fixed solar
'priestly' calendar... could well have been adopted by a segment of early (messianic Jews).
" Since Shavuot/Pentecost always falls on "Sunday" on this calendar, Strand sees a possible
inference in some gentile minds for the observance of "Sunday."
If we can consider the Book of Jubilees as midrash, as it was undoubtedly intended, we
find that the solar calendar consisted of 364 days, divided into four seasons of three months
each, thirteen weeks to a season. Each month had thirty days, with one day intercalated for
each of the four seasons. There were exactly fifty-two weeks in the year, the first day of
the first month always falling on Wednesday. Thus the festivals would always recur on
exactly the same day of the week each year.
The year began on the fourth day of the week (Wednesday) because it was explicitly
written in the opening chapter of Genesis: "And Elohim said, 'Let there be lights in the
firmament of the heavens to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs
and for seasons and for days and years...' And it was so... And there was evening and there
was morning, a fourth day" (vs. 14-19). A traditional explanation for beginning each year
and season on the 4th day of the week is found in the Talmud ("Rosh Hashanah" 11a):
according to tradition the world was created in the (first month - Abib), and as the
recognized era is reckoned from that event, an attempt was made to calculate the
date of the conjunction which began the first month of Abib. The result arrived at
was 4d, 9h, 642p,... i.e. Wednesday, 3h. 35'40" after midnight.
So then, the ancient Hebrews, believing the first day of the first year would have begun
on the 4th day of the week - began each calendar year on this day of the week. When Ex.
34:18; 9:31 is observed no calculation is necessary, since observance of the barley each
spring would keep the calendar in proper season and initiate one intercalated week approximately
each Sabbatical and Jubilee year. The Jubilee year then, begins on "Wednesday" and always
ends on "Tuesday."
The only annual changes to this calendar would be the lunar phases, which would simply
be affixed to the "Jubilee" calendar as they are to the Julian calendar today - making the "Jubilee"
calendar preferable to the calendar commonly in use today all over the world.
One might compare this with the present Rabbinical calendar, which only 40% of the time
honors its own rule of being a lunar calendar because of these "postponements":
A. "Yom Kippur can not precede or follow a weekly Shabbat.
B. The last feast day of Sukkot can not fall on Shabbat.
C. Pesach can fall only on the 2d, 3d, 6th, or 7th day of the week."
These postponements (dehioth) dictate that the months will not begin on the exact
day of the New Moon. In other words the Rabbinical calendar is based not on the moon or
Torah. It is based on the Babylonian Mystery-Religion, and on the Talmud, compiled by the
The Zaddikim taught that the four quarters of the Solar- Jubilee Calendar are the four
seasons of change in climate and vegetation; that the universe moves in perfect numerical
harmony; and that any other reckoning of the year is wrong. They stressed that there are
exactly 52 (4 x 13) weeks in the year, and that those who use a lunar calendar observe the
Festivals on the wrong dates. They also taught that Shavuot is the 15th of the third month.
This date on the Jubilee calendar always falls on the first day of the week. Also, the first
and last days of Pesach are always the 4th day of the week.
The Pharisees and rabbis today understand "Sabbath" with regard to the counting of the
Omer, as referring to first festival of Passover. Hence count began on 16th day of first month,
but not on a specific day of week. Therefore Shavuot would fall on sixth day of third month,
but not on a specific day of week.
Samaritans understood the "Sabbath" to always be the Saturday within and ending the Passover
week while using the Jubilee Calendar. The fifty-day count began on Sunday, the 26th and Shavuot
turned out to be always on Sunday, the 15th day of third month.
Rabbis, following the tradition of the Pharisees emphasized that the Omer should be
harvested even on the Sabbath. The Pharisees would stage an elaborate ceremony as follows:
"[When the sheaf was harvested] on the Sabbath he would say to them:
Is today the Sabbath? and they would respond: Yes! Is today the Sabbath? and they
would respond: Yes! Should I harvest it? And they would respond: Harvest it! Should I
harvest it? And they would respond: Harvest it! Each item would be repeated three
times. Why so much? Because of the Boethusians who used to claim that the harvest of
the sheaf was not on the morrow of the festival." (Mishnah Menahot 10:3).
Physical Evidence of Priestly Use of the Jubilee Calendar
The antiquity of the Jubilee Calendar is proven by the 7th Century BCE plaque shown in
Biblical Archaeology Review (March-April, 1983, p. 37). This smooth bone plaque measures just
over two inches long and one inch wide. Evidently a peg was moved each day of the month
from one to the next of the 30 holes arranged in three rows of ten holes each. In the fourth
row of 12 holes, another peg would be moved to mark off the beginning of each month.
The last day of the first three quarters or seasons was marked by a peg within the
Proto-Aeolic capital at the top of the plaque. Similar plaques have been found at other sites in Israel.
Until Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE, "Christianity" was considered
to be merely another Jewish sect - observance of "Easter" was tied to the date of the "Jewish
Passover." The Jews in Palestine employed the year count of the Seleucids, calling it Minyan
Shetaroth (Count for Contracts). Those in the Diaspora awaited the arrival of messengers
from Palestine with news of the determinations of the Sanhedrin each year before they
could proclaim the annual calendar. The Gentile Christians had to wait to be told each year
(by the Jews) when to observe "Easter."
The Missing 187 Years
The Rabbinic calendar of today belongs to the same family of calendars as those of the ancient
Assyrians and Babylonians. All three stem from the much earlier calendar of the Sumerians - the people
of southern Mesopotamia (today's Iraq) who developed Man's first known high civilization nearly 6,000
years ago. These calendars were used for religious purposes, as the sun and the moon were
worshipped in ancient Mesopotamia. For astronomical purposes they relied on a second calendar,
the solar or astronomical calendar (Parise, 1982).
Abraham, the first Hebrew Patriarch, migrated to Canaan from Ur - a metropolis which in his
time was the royal capital of the Sumerian empire. In his days, Nippur, the religious-scientific center,
had been established for many years; and was one of the main centers of moon worship. Zecharia
Sitchin (linguist and biblical scholar) suggests that by calling himself Ibri ("Hebrew") Abraham simply
identified himself as one born in Nippur, whose Sumerian name was Ni-Ibru -- "The Watered Place of
Crossing". It was there, scholars have found, that one of Mankind's first calendars, the Nippur
calendar, was devised and introduced 3760 BCE. It became standard during the golden age of
ancient Babylon under Hammurabi (New Catholic Encyclopedia; Vol. 2, p. 1068).
Rabbinic years had no sequential number until the Eighth Century, CE. But the Jewish
year corresponding to 1987 bore the number 5747. 5747 years since what? The traditional
answer is: "Since the world was created." But we know that Earth and the solar system
came into being billions of years ago. Actually, Rabbi Hillel worked through the calendar
backward, from year one of the Common Era. Working out the complex calculations
without the benefit of computers, he concluded the First of "Tishri" of the "first year"
occurred 4,119 years earlier - in the year 3760 BCE. It was supposedly the number
of years that had passed since the count of years had begun in ancient Babylon.
It was in reaction to the steps taken at the Council of Nicaea, and the new challenges
facing the Jews of the time as a result, that the Sanhedrin, under the presidency of Rabbi Hillel
(the Second), fixed and released to all the Jewish communities a permanent calendar
(the Mundi Calendar). Along with that, the count of years was also determined. It was
called Minyan Olam, "The Worldly Count". The word or connotation of Creation does
not appear at all until the tenth century, in the writings of Rabbi Sherira.
In recent studies it has become evident that the Rabbinic (or Mundi Calendar) is off by
a considerable number of years. It is a well known fact, for instance, that the First Mikdash
was destroyed in 586 BCE and the Second Mikdash was consecrated in 516 BCE, and destroyed
in 70 CE. The Second Mikdash, therefore, stood 585 years (not 586), while according to
Jewish chronology, it stood only 420 years (See Yoma 9a and Yerushalmi Megilah I, 12).
According to the Seder Olam and Ab. Zar. 9a, during the Second Commonwealth the
Persians reigned 34 years, the Greeks 180, the Hasmoneans 103 and the Romans 103
years, which gives us a total of 420 years, a difference of 165 years. This mistake
seems to lie in the time of the Persians which was much longer than 34 years (Edgar Frank:
Talmundic and Rabbinical Chronology: The Systems of Counting Years in Jewish
Literature; Feldmheim Publishers, NY, Jerusalem, p. 9).
This accusation is not difficult to check. The Babylonian exile ended in 538 B.C.E. with Cyrus'
edict allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Mikdash. This date is supported by
Ptolemy's Canon which recorded the occurrence of lunar eclipses during the Nabonasser Era,
and which is verified by computerized astronomy. According to the Jewish calendar this was
in the year 3410 AM (Aryeh Carmell: Aids to Talmud Study; 4th Ed., V. IX: The Roman Republic;
133-44 BC; Pompey's Later Campaigns, p. 382).
The following calculation will demonstrate the problem:
1987 CE + 538 BCE = 2525 years 5748 AM - 3410 AM = 2338 years 2525 yrs. - 2328 yrs.
= 187 yrs. difference in the calendars
The Persians, Greeks and Romans were all foreign rulers. The Hasmoneans were Jewish rulers
of the priestly class, but not of the line of Zadok. They also ruled as tyrants. Rabbinic sources as
well as Flavius Josephus described them as tyrants who oppressed the people of the Second
Commonwealth. It is not surprising to find them listed here among foreign rulers. The duration
of each rule, from beginning to end, is what is recorded here, not the length of time that the
Second Mikdash stood.
The Persian rule began with Cyrus' capture of Babylon in 538 BCE. Greek rule began with
Alexander's conquest of the region in 333 BCE. Judas Maccabee took over the rebellion against
the Syrio-Grecian Empire in 166 BCE. The Romans first extended their influence over the region
when Pompey took Jerusalem in 63 BCE. By applying this information to the data recorded above
we arrive at some very interesting results:
538-Cyrus - 34 yrs. = 504 BCE 333-Alexander - 180 yrs. = 153 BCE 166-Hasmoneans -
103 yrs. = 63 BCE 63-Romans + 103 yrs. = 40 CE
It is interesting that the end of the Hasmonean Era matches the beginning of the Roman
Era. According to this record the Roman rule ended in 40 CE. However, it was in the spring of 41
CE that Emperor Claudius restored rule of Judea and Samaria to Agrippas I (The Cambridge
Ancient History; 3d ed., V IX: The Roman Republic; 133-44 BC; Pompey's Later Campaigns, p.
382). Agrippas, unlike his grandfather King Herod, enjoyed the support of his countrymen
and the rabbinate.
The solution to this enigma lies in the manner in which the rule of a king was calculated.
Or, more important, when that rule was considered to have begun.
The rule of a Jewish king always began on the first of Nissan, which was the New Year of
the Kings (Yom Teruah). This was in accordance with Exodus 12:2, "This month shall be unto
you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you..." A foreign rule
(which is what we are considered to be under today) was counted from the first of Tishri
(Rosh Hashanah 2a).
The Mishna states in Rosh Hashanah Chapter 1, Mishna 1: There are four new years. On
the first of Nisan is the New Year for Kings and for Festivals; on the first of Elul is the New Year
for the tithe of animals - R. Eliezer and R. Simon say, on the first of Tishri - on the first of Tishri
is the New Year for the years, for Sabbatical Years, for Jubilee Years, for planting and for
vegetables; and on the first of Shevat is the New Year for Trees, according to the view
of the School of Shammai, but the School of Hillel say, on the fifteenth thereof.
It was Annias who changed Rosh HaShanah to the 1st day of the 7th month as it remains
on the Rabbinic calendar today. This was the disputation between the writer of the MMS Document
found at Qumran against the ruling Pharisee Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. Babylon and many other
contemporary cultures reckoned the Autumn Equinox as the first day of the 7th month, as
the beginning of the year. Other more ancient calendars, however, agreeing to that stated
in Exodus 12:2, reckoned the Spring Equinox as the New Year.
The Jewish scribes used what is today called an antedating, non-accession system of
reckoning regal years. In this system, if a king began to rule before the first of Nissan, even by
only one day his second year began that New Year of the Kings. Since the Roman Era was
considered to have ended in 40 CE, then he must have come to power before the first of
Nissan; and thereby, was accredited with all of the preceding year.
The Hasmonean Era is here calculated from the beginning of the career of Judas Maccabee
in 166 BCE. However, the Grecian Era did not end until 153. The wars of the Maccabeans were
brought to a close by a League of Friendship between Jonathan of Judah and Bacchides
(Josephus: Complete Works; translated by William Whiston, A.M.; Kregel Publications,
Grand Rapids, Michigan; 1982. Book XIII, Chapter I, part 6). Bacchides was commander
of the forces of Demetrius I, a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, who ruled from 162 to 150 BCE.
Here we find the date 153 for that pact of nonaggression.
The Second Mikdash was consecrated in the sixth year of Darius I (Ezra 6:15) which is
identified as 516 BCE. What could have happened in 504 to give it special importance to the
In Ptolemy's Canon a Lunar eclipse is recorded as having taken place on Sept. 19, 503 BCE.
This was the 246th year of the Nabonassar Era and the 20th year of Darius I (Edwin R. Thiele:
The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings; The University of Chicago Press; 1955, Appendix H).
According to the Jewish system of reckoning the rule of a foreign king, Darius I began his
20th year in the fall of 504. The only Biblical text that could possibly be linked to this date
is Nehemiah's arrival in Jerusalem in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2:1). When discussing
the Persians one comes across many problems. Not least among these is the number of
honorary names given their kings. For more information on this subject see the commentary
on Rosh Hashanah 2a (Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz's) and on the Books of Nehemiah, Ezra and Esther.
The dates of Nehemiah and Ezra are still unclear and hotly debated by scholars.
In 504 the Jewish people began an Era of Independence under the Great Sanhedrin. This
lasted for 171 years, or until Alexander entered Jerusalem. A second period of self-rule began 40
CE under Agrippas I. His son, Agrippas II, was a puppet-king. The harsh realities of the remaining
years of the Second Mikdash were those of tyrannical Roman rule. What is implied here is that
these chronological notations preserved in the Seder Olam, were made during the life time of
Agrippas I. Since the remaining 30 years are not recorded, the indications are that this may
well be part of the Mikdash archives thought destroyed when it was burned by Titus.
What of the missing 187 years?
From the beginning of the Persian rule in 538 until the rebuilding of the Mikdash in 516,
there had passed 22 years. From the rebuilding of the Mikdash until independence in 504, there
had passed 12 years. The period of the Great Sanhedrin lasted for 171 years. The Greeks
dominated the region for 167 years. The Maccabean wars lasted for 13 years. The Hasmoneans
were in full control for 90 years. The Romans ruled for 103 (Sivan 63 BCE to Nissan of 40 CE).
From the beginning of Agrippas I's rule to the destruction of the Second Mikdash in 70 CE, there
had passed 30 years.
The full amount of time covered here is 607 years. If you take from this the 420 years
that the rabbis of the Middle Ages mistakenly thought accounted for the period, then a difference
of 187 years is discovered.
Since the current Jewish year is determined by adding 3760 to the secular year between
January 1st and Rosh Hashanah, and 3761 between Rosh Hashanah and January 1st: the Jubilee
calendar year would be determined by adding the numbers 3947 or 3948 (respectively). 5760
should have been 5948.
Each jubilee period consists of seven "weeks" of years, and naturally each of the weeks
includes seven years. When dating events the Book of Jubilees almost always specifies the number
of the jubilee, the week, and the year in which it occurred. The year, though solar, has only 364
days, not 365 and a fraction. The solar year of 364 days has certain obvious advantages: every
date occurs on the same day of the week each year because 364 is precisely divisible by seven,
and each year begins on the same week day. In the calendar that later became normative in
Judaism, the holidays move through the days of the week, sometimes occurring on the Sabbath,
while in the Jubilees calendar they never migrate. Thus, there never arises a conflict regarding
which laws take precedence - those of the Sabbath or those of a festival that happens to fall
on the Sabbath in a particular year. Several of the Dead Sea Scrolls employ the same calendar.
This was one of the causes why the Qumran Community eventually separated from Jerusalem
in mid second century B.C.E.
The Book of Jubilees and those in the Qumran insisted the celebration of festivals whose
origins the Torah traces to the time of Moses, were in fact practiced by even Noah and Abraham.
One significant example is Shavuot (the Feast of Weeks), which occurs fifty days after Pesach
(Passover). Jubilees states it was not Moses and his contemporaries who first celebrated the
holiday; rather, it was Noah and his sons who did so after the flood waters had dried from
the earth. Moreover, though Noah and his sons were the first humans to mark the occasion,
the festival had actually been celebrated since creation in the heavenly world. When Moses
and the Israelites came along, they were merely renewing a holiday that had been neglected
for some time (Jubilees 6:17-22) and entering a covenant on the anniversary of earlier
pacts with Hashem. The same holds true for Sukkot (the Feast of Tabernacles) and
Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement. Further, there is every reason to believe that
the author of the Book of Jubilees was himself a priest -- as were the whole community --
the rightful Holy Mikdash priesthood.
Jubilees appears to have been written in a time much like those years in Germany when Jews
were raising questions about the laws which made their way of life different from that of all other
peoples. Those years gave birth to the "Reform" and "Conservative" movements in Judaism. First
Maccabees, which describes events that happened in the 170s-130s B.C.E., reports that some
Jewish people wished to discard their legal system for one that more nearly aligned itself with
the practices of the nations with whom they came into contact. Their case, if it resembled an
approach that seems to have been popular elsewhere in the Hellenistic period, was that there
had once been a time of legal purity or innocence for their people but that it had ended when
the national lawgiver imposed narrow, ethnic rules on his people. It may be that the Jewish
opponents of the traditional Mosaic laws wanted to return to what they surmised were the
simpler conditions of patriarchal times, when great Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob did not celebrate
the festivals, follow kosher law, or encumber the Sabbath with a multitude of crimping laws.
All of that came only later, when Moses appeared on the scene. Would it not be better to
imitate Abraham's practice and thus remove those barriers separating Jew from gentile?
Jubilees refutes this viewpoint and argues that if one reads Genesis properly it shows that
the special Jewish practices did not arise in a later time but can be traced to earliest days - to
the eras of Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Those who wished to imitate the
ancestors would simply find themselves behaving in those distinctive ways which always
differentiated the Hebrew people from gentiles. There was no pristine period of simple
worship; Moses continued what had been in place long before. If the numerous copies
of Jubilees in their library are any evidence, it certainly appealed to the priests at Qumran
who wrote and copied the Dead Sea Scrolls. It also caught the fancy of some Christian
groups who may have had strong legal interests and who appreciated how it supplemented
the information in Genesis and Exodus.
The rediscovery of this book in relatively recent times has thus revealed ancient
debates and approaches to the biblical text. Jubilees illustrates the kind of milieu from
which the community of the Dead Sea Scrolls was to take its inspiration when its leaders
decided to separate from normal Jewish society and form an isolated community in the
Judean wilderness. It suggests that those in the Qumran Community were strict interpreters
of the law, avid students of scripture, and a group who looked eagerly to the final divine
intervention in human affairs.
Recently Ze'ev Ben-Shahar obtained his doctorate in Philosophy with his thesis on
"The Calendar of the Judean Desert Sect" wherein his confirms that the Jubilee calendar
is the same as the "Apocrypha" or Jubilee Calendar. It may be seen from his thesis, that
not only does the correct time for the keeping of the Feasts depend on the Solar Calendar;
but only through use of this calendar does the third tithe support the keeping of the Sabbatical Year.
When Did The Year 5757 Begin In The Jubilee Calendar?
Disregarding the 165 year discrepancy this is the year 5757 in the Torah Jubilee Calendar
(March 26, 1997, through March 24, 1998 by our present day "CE" dating). Last year was the
19th year of that 19-year rhythmic cycle used in the solar/lunar system.
New Year (Rosh Hashanah) in the Jubilee Calendar always begins at sunset on the Tuesday
evening following the vernal equinox, March 22. That is the day of the earth's turning point in its
elliptic orbit around the sun. So, March 26, 1997 is the first day of the first month in the Torah
Jubilee Year 5757. The Solar year always ends at sunset on the Tuesday following the vernal
equinox. Once in about each 6 years an extra week is added to the old year. The insertion
of this special week among 12 months, based on observation of barley crops in Israel aligns
the monthly circuit with the solar year. This relationship is significant for achieving an annual
monthly calendar that is usable year in and year out.
There are four Jewish "new years" representing the beginning of each of the four seasons:
spring equinox, summer solstice, fall equinox, and the winter solstice. These are designated in the
Jubilee Calendar by the added 31st day to the third month of each season. The meaning of the
word Equinox is midway, half way, center, or Median of the year. The first day of the seventh
month is specified as Yom Teruah a "Day of Blowing [Trumpets]" in Leviticus 23:24. It is half
way through the year starting from just after the vernal equinox in March. It was not,
however, to be considered the beginning of the year or Rosh Hashanah in the Torah
reckoning of years, but rather the "new year" of the third season.
The Departure of The Presence of Shechinah from Israel
The writers of the Copper Scroll were Shimur HaLevi, Hizkiyah, Zekiyah, Haggai the Prophet
and Zacharia the Son of Ido the Prophet. They wrote the Copper Scroll in the Jewish Year 3331
or 2,425 years ago. These men, under the command of Jeremiah (II Maccabees 2: 1-6), had
removed the treasures of the Holy Mikdash 22 years before its destruction and hidden them
in the Year 3331. Ezekiel had his vision of "The departure of the Presence of Shechinah, the
Glory, of the L-RD from Israel" in the Year 3332. [See Eliezer Shulman's "Sequence of Events
in the Old Testament" page 135].
The Shechinah, the Glory of HaShem, never returned to Israel.
It was one of the 10 things in the First Holy Mikdash that was absent in the Second Mikdash.
According to the "records" mentioned in II Maccabees 2:1-8, the Glory of HaShem
will return after the Mishkan (Tabernacle) is recovered and raised-up.
"It is also found in the records that the prophet Jeremiah ordered those who were carried
away to take some of the fire, as has been described, and that after giving them the Law, the
prophet charged those who were carried away not to forget the L-rd's commands, and not to
be led astray in their minds when they saw gold and silver idols and their ornamentation. And
with other similar exhortations, he told them that the Law should not pass from their hearts.
It was also in the writing that the prophet, in obedience to a revelation, gave orders that the
tent and the ark should accompany him, and that he went away to the mountain where Moses
went up and beheld Hashem's inheritance. And Jeremiah came and
found a cave-dwelling, and he took the tent and the ark and the incense altar into it, and he
blocked up the door. And some of those who followed him came up to mark the road, and they
could not find it. But when Jeremiah found it out, he blamed them and said, "The place shall be
unknown until Hashem gathers the congregation of his people together
and shows his mercy. Then the L-rd will show where they are, and the glory of the Lord will
appear, as they were shown in the days of Moses, and when Solomon asked that the place might
be made very sacred." (II Maccabees 2:1-8)
These Prophets who hid the first Mishkan (Tabernacle) followed the Torah Jubilee Calendar.
Half a millennium later, the people who lived at Qumran, also used the Jubilee Calendar. In fact,
there were 18 copies of the Book of Jubilees found at Qumran. Until the Qumran discovery of
these scrolls of the Book of Jubilees in Hebrew, we only had them written in the Coptic Ethiopian
language. The MMS document found at Qumran deals explicitly with the issue of the Jubilee
Calendar and the Lunar Calendar.
But in Jerusalem, in the Mikdash, the Glory was gone. "The force of vitality for the Jewish
Soul is the great yearning for the building of the Beit HaMikdash and returning its splendor,
with the purpose of ideal perfection. Only this expectation elevates the spirit of all generations
to know that there is an exalted purpose to their lives and a historical continuation. In this
high point is hidden the Tree of Life of the connection of the Nation to Eretz Yisrael (the
Land of Israel), and all the commandments dependent on the Land, however they apply,
guard the moisture of this fundamental dew." (Ginzei HaReiyah, p. 154)
Will the ancient Jubilee Calendar be used by the priests when the building of the Beit
HaMikdash takes place? From the evidence, this writer believes it is imperative. Further, it
is the "time" for rabbinical Judaism (the descendants of the Pharisees who changed the
calendar) to begin the "restoration" of all these things. The Sons of Zadok (Sadducees) can
not, they have all been laid to rest.
How is the Year of Jubilee Determined?
We are told that a year of Jubilee occurred in 5752 or 1992-1993. If true and according
to the Torah, the land would be returned to its original tribal inheritance. The Torah portion for
the counting the Jubilee years is in Leviticus 25. There are several opinions among the rabbis
when they should occur. Some teach the 15th and 65th year of each century in the Jewish
Calendar was a Jubilee. There are, however, several opinions about the reckoning of the
Jubilee. We learn from Joshua 4:19 that Joshua and Israel entered the Promised Land on
the 10th day of the first month in the year 2449* (typographical error? 2489 AM?).
In Leviticus 25:2, "... when you come into the land which I give you...", seems to indicate
that the counting of the Shmittah or Sabbatical years should begin on the 49th year and the and
seven years succeeding, on the 55th year would be the first Sabbatical Year.
Then in Leviticus 25:8-11, "And thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of years to thee, sevel
times seven years; and the space of the seven Sabbaths shall be to thee forty nine years. Then
shalt thou cause the shofar to sound on the 10th day of the 7th month, on the Day of Atonement
shall ye sound the Shofar throughout all your land. And ye shall hallow the 50th year, and proclaim
liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants: it shall be a Jubilee for you; and you shall
return every man to his possession, and you shall return every man to his family. A jubilee
shall that 50th year be to you...."
Since we entered the land on the 10th day of the 1st month in the year 2489*, some have
assumed that the counting of the sabbatical year and the Jubilee would start on that year.
(Vendyl Jones: 2488) However, they spent seven years at Gilgal in the conquest of the land,
and another seven years in dividing the land to the tribal heirs. They did not enter into the
"possession of the land" until fourteen years later in the year 2502. That was the first year
of the counting of the seven years as the first sabbatical (shmittah) year.
Seven sabbatical years later, or the 49th year would be the year 2551. The following year
was the Jubilee in 2552. The following year 2553 was the 1st year of the sabbatical year counting.
Therefore, the 2nd and the 52nd year of each century would be sabbatical years. Thus, the year
5052 would have been our 19th Jubilee.
In actuality a Jubilee can not be observed today because there is no Mishkan (Tabernacle) or
Mikdash (Temple). Moreover, the Urim and Thummim have not been recovered. So no priest can
stand with the Urim and Thummim to determine exactly to which Tribe each head of an Israelite
family belongs. Therefore, the Jubilee cannot be observed until those hidden treasures are returned
which are the things described in the Copper Scroll.
Before the Holy House (actually, the Mishkan with the Ark and Ashes of the Red Cow, etc.)
can be returned, there must be at least a symbolic return of the observant Jewish people to the
Land of Israel for Torah reasons and not for mere political Zionist motivations. Within Israel, there
must also be at least a symbolic and serious turning of the Israelis to Hashem
and His Torah.
That first symbolic return of the Jews to the Land of Israel for Torah reasons really only
began to happen in the years from 1984 to the present. This return was greatly the result of
the efforts of Menechem Begin.
The Present Influence of Rome
By what calendar do we calculate what year this is? When did this year's calculation presently
begin? Also, it is imperative to compute The New Year, the Sabbatical years and Jubilees according
to the Jubilee Solar Calendar.
The most difficult thing for most of us is to completely divorce ourselves from the BCE and
CE or BC and AD Calendar. One has the same problem in trying to learn the metric system. One
must forget inches, feet, yards and miles. Until we do we will always be confused in our minds
and unable to think metric freely. I never contemplate about what the BC or BCE date is.
Let me explain why.
Today we reckon time by three different calendars. We have the Christian Calendar,
the traditional Lunar Jewish Calendar and the Jubilee Torah Calendar based on the Sun and Zodiac.
We are accustomed to the Christian system of reckoning dates using the Gregorian
Calendar. This system was established by Pope Gregory XIII, in the year 1582. England, by
the way, did not adopt this new calendar until 1752. Another change wrought by this new
method was to mark January 1st as the beginning of the New Year. The monks computed
time based on the year that they thought to be the birth of Christ. They designated that
year as the year "0". The year before was Before Christ, or the year "0" was the year
"1" BC. Whereas, the year after "0" was the year "1" Anno-Domini AD "1". This means
from BC "1" plus the year "0" plus AD "1" is three years. Some church historians just
add the 2+2=4 years.
These monks were better theologians than they were mathematicians, astronomers or
historians. In view of mathematics, there was no year "0". If there was a year zero then it
was a year nothing --zero -- happened. History and astronomy have no account of a year
zero. So then, would the years BC "1" and AD "1" equal only two years?
No! If their system were logical (and it is not), the year one is the year "1". The Year "1"
is neither BC nor AD. The year "2" BC would be the year before the year "1" and "2" AD would
be the year after "1". Hence there is only one year between BC "2" and AD "2". Not four, not
three, not two -- but only one year!
If the monk's time transit was off by two, three, or four years from zero degrees in
the pivotal triangulation point, how much discrepancy would accumulate through the centuries
both BC and AD? It took several centuries for them to acknowledge that: "Jesus was actually
born four years Before Christ."
Now let us look briefly at the traditional Jewish Lunar/Solar Calendar
And they, teachers of lies and seers of falsehood, Have schemed against me a devilish
scheme, To exchange [Thy] Law engraved on my heart by Thee For the smooth things (which
they speak) to Thy people. And they withhold from the thirsty the drink of Knowledge, And
assuage their thirst with vinegar, That they may gaze on their straying, On their folly
concerning their feast days, On their fall into their snares. (1QH 4:9-12; p. 175)
This Calendar was adopted during the Hasmonean period. It was introduced by the High
Priest Hannan, or Annias. He changed the months from the simple Biblical numerical
designations of the 1st month, the 2nd month, and so on, to the names of the Babylonian
months. The names of the Babylonian months were the names of the pagan Babylonian
gods. We have like designations for the pagan names of the months and days of the
week in the Christian System.
Hannan also changed Rosh Hashanah (New Year) from the first month that begins at Aviv,
the Spring month, to the seventh month at the Autumn Equinox. The word, 'equinox' means
equidistant, halfway or middle. The 7th month, Tishri, is the beginning month half way through
the year from the 1st month of Aviv in the Spring.
Therefore, the New Year in the Jubilee Calendar is 6 months after the New Year in the
The MMS document found at Qumran brings 24 charges against the Upper Sanhedrin in
Jerusalem. Several of these charges relate to the use of the Lunar rather than the Solar
Jubilee Calendar used in biblical times. Among those charges is the allegation that the Torah
is very specific that the first day and the first month of the year is the Spring Equinox,
or the month of Aviv (Spring) is the beginning of the year to the Nation of Israel. Exodus
12:2; "This month shall be unto you the beginning of months. The first month of the year
[Rosh Hashanah] shall it be unto you."
One can easily see the point of dissension that the writer of the MMS Document made against
the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. The Lunar system requires the addition of 7 extra months in each 19
year cycle to keep it at least close to the Solar system.
In Genesis 1:14-18 and 8:22 the sun, moon and stars were set in their order to govern
The Sun was set to determine days and years. The sun is called the "Day Star". Since the
sun is a star in the Galaxy, it is also sequenced to the Zodiac. The Moon was consigned to govern
the night, seed-time and the harvest.
The Stars, [Zodiacs or the 12 constellations] were designated to govern the signs and
seasons. In Genesis 8:22, [after the flood], the Zodiac also controlled "Heat and Cold" which
literally means "Warmth and Cool", [Spring and Autumn] and "Summer and Winter."
Babylon and many other contemporary cultures reckoned the Autumn Equinox as the first
day of the 7th month, as the beginning of the year. Other more ancient calendars, however,
agreeing to that stated in Exodus 12:2, reckoned the Spring Equinox as the New Year -- the
Zodiac Sign of Aries (the Lamb) having fully entered into the Gate of the Sun, is the beginning
of the Torah Jubilee year.
Annias [Hannan] changed Rosh Hashanah to the 1st day of the 7th month as it remains
until today. This was the disputation between the writer of the MMS Document found at Qumran
against the ruling Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.
300 Hundred High Priests Died keeping Yom Kippur by the Lunar Calendar
The Gemara (Yoma 9a) states that the first Holy Mikdash (Temple), which stood for
410 years, only had 18 High Priests who served in it. Tosafot state that Divrei Hayamim
(I Chronicles 5:36) itemizes only eight High Priests who served.
After the Babylonian captivity the Jews carried back with them the Babylonian solar/lunar
calendar and used it to determine the dates for high Holy Days. A small bit of math, along
with recorded history, reveals a startling fact:
"In the second Mikdash (temple), which abided for 420 years, more than 300 High Priests
served. If you take off therefrom the 40 years which Shimeon the Righteous served, the 80
years which Yochanan the High Priest served, the 10 years which Yismael b. Fabi served or,
as some say, the 11 years of Rabbi Eleazar b. Charsum, and then count the number of High
Priests from then on -- you will find that none of them completed his year in office. They all
died when they entered the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur" [by the "lunar" reckoning] "to make
the atonement and pray for a good year for all Jews. This happened because they were
corrupt. They bought the high priestly office for money and also accepted bribes." (Rabbi
Sholom Klass, The Jewish Press, p. 5, May 9, 1997.)
"The people were so accustomed to see the priests die that they tied a rope around them
and, when they didn't walk out from the Holy of Holies, the people knew they had died and they
were then pulled out, for no one else was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies."
Qumran documents suggest that the founder of the sect (the Teacher of Righteousness)
fled Jerusalem over calendar question. One of the "crowning accomplishments" of the Second
Mikdash era High Priesthood was when the "high priest" there actually attacked the "Teacher
of Righteousness" (who was probably the rightful high priest) in the Qumran Community, on
what was the true (Jubilee Calendar) Yom Kippur. Since not even an apostate high priest would
consider such a deed on the date he observed Yom Kippur, it is obvious that the two communities
were observing Yom Kippur on different dates -- while using different calendars.
The Restoration of All Things
Then Hashem will heal His servants. They will rise and see great
peace, He will expel their enemies. The Zaddikim [Righteous, Sadducees] will see (this), offer
praise, and be very happy forever and ever. They will see all their punishments and curses on
their enemies. Their bones will rest in the earth and their spirits will be very happy. They will
know that Hashem is the One
who executes Judgment but shows kindness to hundreds and thousands and to all who love Him.
(Jubilees 23:30-31). One might ask "Why do the Rabbis not go back to the Original Jubilee Torah
Calendar?" They answer that the Lunar Calendar was established by the recognized Sanhedrin of
that day. No rabbi or group of rabbis have authority to change a decision of that Sanhedrin.
They cannot change it even if that Sanhedrin was wrong! Today, many rabbis do hold that
when the Messiah comes and the Third Holy Mikdash and Sanhedrin are reestablished, the
Torah Jubilee Calendar will be restored. Perhaps it is time to begin using this calendar now.
(This writing is offered as a source of information. Qumran Bet does not necessarily
agree with all the contents. Take what is of value and discard the rest)
The Sons of Aaron, the Priesthood and what
God said about the Son's of 'Light', the Sons of Man.
Identifying the Qumran sect means gaining an understanding of the
religious and political divisions that existed in ancient
Judaism during Second Temple times and fitting the sect into the picture that emerges.
The Scrolls tell us that the Qumran community had a priestly head.
The priests of the community are called either the "Sons of
Aaron", Manual of Discipline 9: 7, or the "Sons of Zadok" -
Messianic Rule 1: 24. In post-exile times, membership in the
house of Zadok was a necessary prerequisite for holding a
legitimate priestly office, as recorded in Ezekiel's
vision of the new Temple, only the Sons of Zadok are to have
the right to make sacrifices, Ezek 40: 46-55 .
In the lists of priests in I Chronicles Chapter 6, the name of Zadok
occurs in the same dominant position in the
ancestral line, which was absolutely necessary for legitimate priesthood.
The Qumran priests also claimed to derive their genealogy from the high
priest Zadok. From their writings we know it was important to them
that they maintain that status and be called and recognized as the Sons of Zadok.
The Teacher of Righteousness was probably
also descended from a priestly family for him to gain the acceptance and
respect of these disassociated priests. He may have been high priest
who was ousted when the Hasmonaeans took control.
The sect also spoke of themselves as "the elect," which would agree
with the Sadducees and their position of aristocracy
and their claim to be the true and legitimate heirs of Israel's priesthood.
In the Temple, they had been used to holding positions of power and authority
and to providing for the religious needs of the people.
"The Lord swore to David a sure oath from which he will not turn back:
'One of the sons of your body I will set on your throne.
If your sons keep my covenant and my testimonies which I shall
teach them, their sons also for ever shall sit upon your throne.'
For the Lord has chosen Zion; he has desired it for his habitation:
'This is my resting place for ever; here I will dwell, for I have
desired it. I will abundantly bless her provisions; I will satisfy her poor with bread. Her priests I will
clothe with salvation, and her saints will shout for joy.
There I will make a horn to sprout for David; I have prepared a
lamp for my anointed. His enemies I will clothe with shame,
but upon himself his crown will shed its luster'." - Psalms 132:11-18
"[ The God of Knowledge ] has created man to govern
the world, and has appointed for him two spirits in which to walk until the time of His visitation: the spirits
of truth and falsehood. Those born of truth spring from a fountain of light, but those born of falsehood
spring from a source of darkness. All the children of righteousness are ruled by the 'Prince of Light'
and walk in the ways of light, but all the children of falsehood are ruled
by the Angel of Darkness and walk in the ways of darkness".
"The Angel of Darkness leads all the children of righteousness astray and until his end, all their sins,
iniquities, wickednesses ' and all their unlawful deeds are caused by his dominion in accordance with
the mysteries of God ... But the God of Israel and His Angel of Truth will succour
all the sons of light. For it is He who created the spirits of Light and Darkness and founded every
action upon them and established every deed [upon] their ways. And he loves the one everlastingly
and delights in its works for ever; but the counsel of the other he loathes and for ever hates its ways.
" Dead Sea Scrolls - Community Rule 1 QS 3.18-21
If this doesn't reveal the God of 'this World', nothing else will! He is the god of Israel.
He is Jehovah. He is Yehwah. He is the god of the Old Testament.
Throughout the Gospels we see the quite prominent antithesis that Jesus the
Christ makes between His Father and "the Prince of this world " who is credited with the power
to dispose of this world’s goods.
When Jesus was before Pilate he declared, "My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom
were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not he delivered to the Jews..."
Early documentary evidence of the continuation of such an outlook among the first century
followers of Jesus is found in the writings of Ignatius, disciple of the apostle John and
bishop of the ecclesia (community) in Antioch, who was martyred in Rome in 107 AD.
Ignatius was believed to be one of the last Nazarene leaders who knew the ‘Mysteries of
the Kingdom' imparted by the Christ to his closest disciples. Asked by his community about
the mysteries, Ignatius replied:
I could write to you about the mysteries of the heavens,
but I am afraid to do so. It would do you harm. I am able to understand the orders of the heavens,
the degrees of the angels, the variations among them, and the differences of dominions, of
thrones and powers, and of the elevation of the Holy Ghost and of the kingdom of the Lord, and the
highest of all rules of God over everything else. There is an infinity of hierarchy in the world.
In his short Epistle to the Ephesians, Ignatius wrote:
"Be ye not anointed with the bad odour of the doctrine of the prince of this world; let him not lead
you away captive from the life which is set before you.’ Apparently this was a subtle
allusion to the odour of burnt offerings in the deluded worship of the god of this world. In his Epistle
to the Romans he says: "The prince of this world would fain carry me away, and corrupt my disposition
towards God.’ In the long version of Ignatius’s Epistle to the Trallians he definitely identifies
"the prince of this world" as "the devil".
Meaning; The Christ was not of this world where the false god rules.
What of the "Grail Legend"? Sacred Texts
NO PART OF THIS SITE MAY BE COPIED OR REPRODUCED, IN
WHOLE OR IN PART WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL
OF THE WEBMASTER...© COPYRIGHT 1999 - 2009 C.I.C. All Rights Reserved
This page has been visited
Times since December 14, 1999.