The origin of these two terms, descriptive of Speculative
Freemasons, goes back into the very beginning of the history of the Order; indeed, behind
the history of the building Craft in Europe. But that is only in keeping with the
antiquity of the teachings of Freemasonry. Many of our symbols and their meanings go back
to the very childhood of the race. Through these a direct relationship may be traced in
mind and heart and ideal, if not in written document, to such diverse ages and places as
China four thousand years ago, the priesthood of ancient Egypt and the Jews of the
Captivity. For purposes of understanding the genesis of the word "free" as
coupled with Mason, it will suffice to begin with the Roman Collegia; orders or
associations of men engaged in similar pursuits. doubtless their formation was caused
partly by the universal desire for fellowship and association, particularly strong in
Rome, in which the individual was so largely submerged for the good of the empire, and
partly by economic necessity, just as labor unions are formed today.
These Collegia speedily became so prominent and powerful that Roman Emperors attempted to
abolish the right of free association. In spite of edicts and persecutions, however, the
Collegia continued to exist.
The Colleges of Architects, however, for a time were sanctioned even after others were
forbidden. They were too valuable to the state to be abolished or made to work and meet in
secret. They were not at this time called Freemasons, but they were Free- and it is the
fact and not the name which is here important. Without architects and builders Rome could
not expand, so the Colleges of Architects were permitted to regulate their own affairs and
work under their own constitutions, free of the restrictions which attempted to destroy
Then, as now, three were necessary to form a College (no Masonic lodge can meet with less
than three); the College had a Magister of Master, and two Wardens. There were three
orders or degrees in the College which to a large extent used emblems which are a part of
Freemasonry. Roman sarcophagi show carvings of square, compasses, plumb, level and
Of the ceremonies of the Collegia we know little or nothing. Of their work we know much,
and of their history enough to trace their decline and fall. The Emperor Diocletian
attempted to destroy the new religion, Christianity, which threatened so much which seemed
to the Romans to make Rome, Rome. Many members of the College of Architects were
Christians-a very natural result, since these associations had taught and believed in
brotherhood. When came a Carpenter who taught brotherhood because of a common Father, the
members of the College of Architects took for their own his doctrine, so strangely
Persecution, vengeance, cruelty followed: this is not the place to go deeply into the
story of the four Masons and the Apprentice who were tortured to death, only to become the
Four Crowned Martyrs and patron saints of later builders and the Masons of the Middle
Ages. Suffice in that the Colleges of Architects were broken up and fled from Rome.
Comes a gap which is not yet bridged. Between the downfall of Rome and the rise of Gothic
architecture in Europe we know little of what happened to the builders Collegia. It is
here that we come to the fascination theory of the Comacines-that some of the expelled
builders found refuge on the island of Comacina in Lake Como and, through generation after
generation kept alive the traditions and the secrets of the art until such time as the
world was again ready for the Master Builders. All this is most fascinating only set forth
in several books, best known of which is Leader Scott's CATHEDRAL BUILDERS, THE STORY OF A
GREAT MASONIC GUILD. The author says that the Comacine masters "were the link between
the classic Collegia and all other art and trade guilds of the Middle Ages. They were
Freemasons because they were builders of a privileged class, absolved from taxes and
servitude, and free to travel about in times of feudal bondage. BR>
During the Middle Ages and the rise of Gothic architecture, we find two distinct classes
of Masons; the Guild Masons who, like the Guild carpenters or weavers or merchants, were
local in character and strictly regulated by law, and the Freemasons, who traveled about
from city to city as their services were needed to design and erect those marvelous
churches and cathedrals which stand today inimitable in beauty.
It may not be affirmed as a proved fact that the Freemasons of the Middle Ages were the
direct descendants through the Comacine Masters of the colleges of Architects of Rome, but
there is too much evidence of a similar structure, ideal and purpose and too many
similarities of symbol, tool and custom, to dismiss the idea merely because we have no
written record covering the period between the expulsion from Rome and the beginning of
the Cathedral building age.
However this may be, the operative builders and designers of the cathedrals of Europe were
an older order than the Guild masons; it is from these Freemasons-free of the Guild and
free of the local laws-that the Masonry of today has come. incidentally, it may be noted
that the historian Findel finds the name Freemason as early as 1212 and the name occurs in
1375 in the history of the Company of Masons of the City of London.
The history of the freemasons through the cathedral Building ages up to the Reformation
and the gradual decline of the building art needs volumes where here are but pages. But it
must be emphasized that the Freemasons were far more than architects and builders; they
were the artists, the leaders, the teachers, the mathematicians and the poets of their
In their lodges Speculative Masonry grew side by side with their operative art. They were
jealous of their Order and strict in their acceptance of Apprentices; strict, too, in
admitting Apprentices to be Fellows of the Craft, requiring seven years of labor before an
apprentice might make his "Master's Piece" to submit to the Master and Wardens
of his lodge, when, haply, he might become a Fellow and receive "the Mason
No fools built the great Cathedrals of Europe. Mathematics, architecture, strength of
materials, the principle of the arch, proportion, unity, beauty-all had to be practiced by
experts to produce these tremendous structure, on which the most modern science and art
It was only natural, then, that the Master desired a high quality of Craftsmen to insure a
high quality of craftsmanship. Only Apprentices of character and willingness to learn were
accepted. Only those who could make a perfect Master's Piece were accepted as Fellows.
Doubtless only the most expert and learned of the Fellows could ever hope to be Masters.
Then, as now, to secure fine workmen they began early and trained them long. As workman
who was immoral, a drunkard, a gambler, a loose liver, could not hope to learn to do good
work, or to be trusted with the operative secrets, it was essential that moral precepts
and philosophical lessons be incorporated into operative lodge life.
Unquestionably the building crafts from the earliest ages-aye, even back of the Roman
Collegia-incorporated speculative teachings with operative instructions given to
Apprentices. This practice grew and expanded during what may be termed the formative
period of the Fraternity. The Cathedral Builders of the Middle Ages must have been a
little world unto themselves in the towns in which they worked. They would employ the
local Guild Masons for rough work, but strictly excluded them from their lodge when
meetings were held. Doubtless these meetings were frequent, perhaps nightly, to discuss
the great work being done.
Young Apprentices, like young men the world over, would skylark and want to have a good
time. Their elders would reprove and read to them a lesson in a simple parable of the
building art. The square, the compasses, the trowel, the chisel, the mallet, the gavel,
the setting maul would all be brought into such lessons.
And so, through year after year and age after age, the teachings of Speculative Masonry
grew. And as it invariable the case the thing which was used as an example to teach,
gradually came to symbolize the lesson taught. To be "square" was at first but
an essential of a tool and an ashlar. Universally now, a "square man" is an
honest one. Trowel and gavel took upon themselves significances far beyond their operative
use. Master after Master would add from his store of learning; lesson after lesson would
be incorporated with an operative practice, until the Speculative Art and the Operative
crafts were, apparently, dependent on each other.
It is world history that knowledge cannot be kept from those who seek it. by hook or
crook, in one way or another, the student will find that which he seeks.
In an age when learning was difficult to get, and association with the educated hardly to
be had outside the Church, it was but natural that thoughtful and scholarly men should
desire membership among the freemasons.
Other men, thoughtful but not scholarly, would see in the speculative teachings of the
Masons that road to knowledge which was otherwise so hard to find. Neither, however, would
want to practice operative Masonry, serve a seven year apprenticeship or make a Master's
Just how such men accomplished their desire and became "accepted" members of the
Order we do not know. Doubtless they had something to bring to, as well as something to
get from, their operative brethren. But we do know the fact; a place was made for such
seekers after light. Distinguished by the title "accepted" that they might not
be confused with "free" Masons, these not-building members encouraged and
expanded the speculative side of Masonry.
It is not possible to say when this practice began. The Regius Poem, the oldest document
of Freemasonry (1390) speaks of Prince Edward (tenth century) as:
Of speculatyfe he was a master.
Ecclesiasts, desiring to become architects and builders, joined the order. Lovers of
liberty were naturally attracted to a fellowship in which members enjoyed unusual freedom
among their fellows.
Gradually the "accepted" or Speculative Freemasons equaled, them outnumbered,
the operative craftsmen and slowly but surely the craft come to be what it is today and
has been for more than two centuries, wholly Speculative in character.
Through the years, particularly those which saw the decline of great building and the
coming of the reformation, more and more became the Accepted Masons and less and less the
operative building Freemasons. Of forty nine names on the roll of the Lodge of Aberdeen in
the year 1670, thirty-nine were those of Accepted Masons.
Hence our title-Free and Accepted Masons-abbreviated F. & A. M. meaning free and
Accepted Masons, in spite of the possible confusion as to whether the first A stands for
"and" or "ancient". The variations are accounted for both by
difference in origins, some Grand Lodges coming into being with lodges which held under
the "Antients" and some from the "Moderns" and by variations due to
the errors which are seemingly ineradicable in "mouth to ear" instruction.
But all of us, regardless of what order we choose for "Ancient,"
"Accepted" "Free" and "Masons," are "Free and
It is one of the glories of the Craft that her historians can trace such derivations into
so long gone a past. That Mason is dead of soul;, indeed, who cannot thrill to the thought
that as a Free and Accepted Mason his is kin not only to those ancient brethren of old
England who first began the practice of "accepting" good men because they were
good men, not because they were builders, but also to the builders of ancient Rome and all
the generations which sprang from them, who were free of the bonds which bound less
skillful and esteemed workmen.
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