The Enoch Figure 2

Enoch The Figure 2

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The Enoch Figure, Part 2

The Enoch Tradition in the Ancient Near East

The Dead Sea Scrolls have expanded the sphere of Enoch studies, which until now have been confined to the world of the intertestamental writers taking their cue from apocalyptic Daniel (about 165 B.C.), with occasional brief looks at the classical and Indo-Iranian elements vaguely designated as belonging to the Gnostics or the Mysteries. But the Enoch tradition takes an immense leap backward as soon as we begin to examine the oldest records of the race, in which the most eminent authorities have detected not only the figure but even the name of Enoch repeatedly, and which also contain full and vivid descriptions of the world of Enoch as described in our later sources.

At least as early as the second century B.C., learned men were making a "fusion of the Bible with Berossus and Hesiod," the former being a highly trustworthy historian who was "entirely dependent on Babylonian traditions," while the latter rivals Homer as the earliest and most venerated of Greek writers. The common meeting ground of the hoariest legends and histories of many peoples was the Flood story, and down through the centuries the figure of Enoch "was widely equated with the Oannes of Berossus," he being the seventh mythical king of Babylon (as Enoch was the seventh patriarch), the bringer of heavenly wisdom to men, builder of the holy city, and God of the Flood, whose name also suggests that of Enoch.

find the name Enlil W. Hallo notes that Oannes may be the Greek form of the Sumerian name Ur-an, equated "in late texts . . . playfully . . . with Akkad, ummanu, sage, teacher, while Hnwk [Enoch] is derived from a root meaning to train, educate." Another seventh king, the Sumerian En-men-dur-an-ki(na), Caquot equates with Enoch, he being the founder of the Mesopotamian priesthood, "the king of Sippar in whose hands the Gods place the secret of Anu, Bel, and Ea, the tablet of the Gods, the seal of the oracle of the heaven and earth."His Sumerian name means "Lord of the Decree, of Totality of heaven and earth." The name Enoch also suggests that of Enki-Ea, "the King of Wisdom who created intelligence. He knows everything that has a name," like the Egyptian Thoth, and like Thoth he is also the great guide to the rites of initiation into the mysteries.

As "recent studies emphasize the significance of the Flood story for the understanding of pre-patriarchal history," Enoch assumes a central position. It will be recalled that in the Genesis Apocryphon and other Lamech texts, Methusaleh goes to Enoch at the ends of the earth to inquire about the birth of Noah. Now in the long familiar Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh, that hero in dire perplexity goes to consult Utnapishtim, also at the ends of the earth, and Utnapishtim is none other than Noah, who tells the hero the Flood story even as Enoch predicts the Flood to Methusaleh. It is held today that "Enoch is a kind of demi-god corresponding to (and inspired by) the Redeemer-god or Wisdom-God of the Babylonian Flood-legend . . . Ea-Oannes; Enoch is the Jewish Redeemer from the Flood," the real hero of the Flood story, "a highly privileged mediator between God and man, enjoying the distinction of being human yet immortal."

Indeed J. G. Davies goes so far as to maintain that the Utnapishtim story "is the immediate source of the Enoch legend." In the Sumerian version of the epic, Utnapishtim also goes by the name of Atrahasis, "the exceedingly Wise One," "the Super-clever One." As Kraeling describes it, the Atrahasis story is even closer to Enoch's than is the Old Babylonian version. In the latter not only Utnapishtim but Gilgamish himself is an Enoch figure: "He saw the secret things and revealed hidden things; he brought intelligence of the days before the Flood; he went on a long journey . . . . He engraved on a tablet of stone all the travail; he builded the wall of Uruk, the Holy City" (cf. Enoch's City).

Moving west into Canaan, the Ugaritic writings of the fourteenth century B.C. contain lines and situations that seem to come right out of Enoch. There is a great assembly of fallen Gods on Mount Hmry the Mount Hermon on which the heavenly Watchers held their convention in the Enoch story. There is the upheaval of nature in "violent rains and storms," the colossal roaring of the elements that marks the end of an old age and the beginning of a new. We find a ritual drama in which "we may visualize such a scene as the classic encounter between Elijah and the Prophets of Baal," thus bringing Enoch's double onto the scene. There is a haunting familiarity in some lines: "Who is Kret that he should weep? Or shed tears, the Good one, the Lad of El?" These texts share common elements and names with the Minoan-Mycenaean, Babylonian, and Egyptian holy books, showing their common archaic ritual background.

A very early Egyptian ritual text, Papyrus Salt 825, has recently been reexamined. It gives a vivid picture of world upheaval amidst universal weeping:

O make lamentation, Gods and Goddesses. . . . The earth is desolate, the Sun does not come forth, the moon is reversed in her course; Nun [the watery firmament] trembles, the earth is overturned, all mortals shall weep and mourn, the gods and goddesses also, all mankind, the Akhw, the dead, the beast of the field, the herds . . . with a sore weeping . [cf. Moses 7:28, . Hor has wept, the water descending from his eye to the earth. . . . Then Shw and Tefnut set to weeping with a great weeping [this pair represent the heavens above and the earth beneath; cf. "The whole heavens shall weep over them. . . . Wherefore should not the heavens weep? (Moses 7:37; see also verses 28 - 34, 40)]. Then Re wept anew, and the water that came down to earth from his eye became a bee ('fy).

E. Hornung points out that the common Egyptian root rem, meaning both "tears" and "mankind," shows the "deep association," the mood (Stimmigkeit) of the world as reflected in language. "It hits us like lightning when the Creator says: 'I must weep because of the raging against me! Men are blind.'" How well our Joseph Smith Book of Enoch captures the spirit of the thing!

And it came to pass that the God of heaven looked . . . and he wept; and Enoch bore record saying: how is it that the heavens weep, and shed forth their tears as rain upon the mountains? (Moses 7:28.)

Here the weeping sky is equated with the weeping Creator and the rain to its tears and to his tears. Or again:

Moses 7:34. The fire of mine indignation is kindled against them; and in my hot displeasure will I send Floods upon them, for my fierce anger is kindled. Salt 825. III, I. Re spat or vomited in this indisposition [bdsh] bitumin [mrhw] . . . 2. he was indisposed again and the liquid that came from his mouth grew up and became Papyrus [twfn, a cleansing substance].

If rain can be divine, cleansing tears, lava can be divine, purifying wrath!

An important class of writings contained in the "oldest book in the world," the Pyramid Texts of Egypt, is what Faulkner labels "Ascension Texts." They describe the ascension to heaven of the hero snatched up in the whirlwind amidst vast thunderings and lightnings and upheavals of nature. The imagery is impressive, but where does it come from? "The king is Osiris in a [whirlwind] . . . bound for the sky on the wind, on the wind!" (PT 258.) "The king travels the air and traverses the earth. . . . There is brought to him a way of ascent to the sky, and it is he who performs the errand of the storm. The Sun Folk have testified concerning me; the hail storm of the sky has taken me and they raised me up to Re." (PT 261 - 62.) "The sky is overcast, the stars are darkened, the celestial expanses quiver, the bones of the earth-gods tremble. . . . Commend me to the four blustering winds which are about you . . . who contend . . . with those whom they would destroy. May they not oppose me when I . . . come to tell you the report of the great Flood which is coming forth from the great one." (PT 273 - 74, 311.) So Enoch might have spoken. It is interesting to read that in the king's entourage are the "Great Ones" and the "Watchers" (so rendered by Faulkner), suggesting personnel of very ancient traditions:

"The Great Ones care for you, the Watchers wait upon you." (PT 373.) We read of the opposing hand of the Great Fetterer or Chainer in PT 384, and think of Satan clutching his great chain in Moses 7:26. The departure to heaven is a triumphant one though it leaves mortals stunned: "Geb laughs, Nut shouts for joy before me when I ascend to the sky. The sky thunders for me, the earth quakes for me, the hail storm has burst apart for me, and I roar as does Seth. Those who are in charge of the parts of the sky open the celestial doors for me, and I stand on air, the stars are darkened for me with the aid of the gods' water jars [the virga of falling rain]. . . . I will leave a record of myself among men and the love of me among the Gods." (PT 511.)

This reads like some "primitive" version of the scores of "testaments" left behind by prophets, patriarchs, and apostles who at a later time tell of their journeys to heaven, following the archetypal Enoch; what can be the connection? After the Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts continue the story in which "the voyages to heaven assume an infinity of astronomical allusions, the greater part of which are incomprehensible," according to L. Speleers, who concludes that "the original texts and contexts have plainly been lost." The 178th chapter of the Book of the Dead contains a Flood story text that the ancient scribes profess themselves at a loss to explain, lost as it is in the mists of the remote past. "What is this?" writes one of them; and the answer: "This storm was the raging of Re. Thoth removed the thundercloud and restored the eye. Others say, however, that the thunder cloud is caused by sickness in the eye of Re which weeps." The title of this chapter is "The Rite for Not Dying a Second Time," reminding us that Gilgamesh visited the Babylonian Noah expressly to learn the secret of not dying again.

What has become of the human race? They make war, stir up all manner of iniquity and violence, and commit every kind of crime. They contrive rebellion, conspiracy and terror; killing has become a way of life; they plot and carry out murders, for the strong takes advantage of the weak in all their doings [Budge]. Thou [Thoth speaking for God] canst not look upon evil, thou wilt not be patient. Make short their years! Cut short the times of their months; because they do crime in secret in everything they have done unto thee. I have [am] thy writing-tablet O Thoth, thy inkpot has been brought to me. I am not among those who return to their secret deeds of iniquity. (2 - 9.)

Here the scribe specifies: "Words to be spoken by Ani [the Candidate or Initiate]":

O Atum, what land is this toward which I wander? For it has no water, it has air; it is very md [deep, like a valley, cf. Moses 7:5 - 8]. It is black as night [Moses 7:26, etc.] and ever vainly seeking is he who lives in it; none of the sweet things of life are in it. . . . So said Atum, speaking with me face to face, saying, I cannot look upon thy iniquities [or afflictions, difficult times, lit. "straits"]. Spoken by Atum . . . I have ordained that my likeness shall be seen in him; my face shall look upon the face of the Lord Atum. . . . I have permitted him to send the Great Ones [cf. angels] and now all my works shall be for destruction. This earth is destined to return to the water of Nun, into primeval chaos [hwhw] as in the beginning. (10 - 18.)

The god next promises Ani the continuation of his line, his son being, as he is, the heir upon the throne (line 20, cf. Moses 7:45, 49.) In the lines that follow, the hero survives in the great "ship of millions" [cf. facsimile no. 2, fig. 41], which supports the life of the race. Then (lines 23 - 26) comes a renewing of the covenant: "Thou doest for me what thy father did for thee, Re has placed me upon the earth that I might prepare my throne that my heir . . . and my garden might thrive . . . to place mine enemies . . . in bonds in the embraces of Sekhet. I am thy son, O my father Re, thou hast made me for this. . . . Thou causest me to come, to rise up, to advance to a glorified state."

To escape from the Flood every god takes his place in the "ship of millions" - what better name for the Ark? The same story is told in other texts: Heliopolis joins in weeping, as the earth returns to its watery chaos, and Osiris departs in the Great Ship to go to the great God in the midst of the sky. The funerary nature of the event in no way conflicts with historical contexts, since the final leave-taking of the hero, his Petirah, is necessarily his last farewell - to all intents his funeral—to those left behind on earth. A hieratic papyrus in the British Museum has the righteous escaping from the diluvial punishment of the wicked in two ways - one in a great boat, the other by taking off into the sky; and, as we have seen, the Slavonic texts supply both escape routes for Enoch's people.

The recorder of all these events is the Egyptian Thoth, Hermes, who bore God's message to a depraved humanity in the time of the Watchers and, as he warned them, recorded all that happened in "the Book of Remembrance of All Things." "He saw all things as a whole, and having beheld he comprehended . . . he had the power to reveal unto others, and . . . the things which he learned he engraved and having engraved them he hid them," so that succeeding generations would have to seek diligently for such knowledge in order to find it (cf. Moses 1:41). The Egyptian equivalent of Watchers were those who conspired under Typhon and took terrible oaths in which Aso, the queen of Ethiopia, took the lead, reminding us of Lamech's wife. The evil aspirations of this woman were checked by the mysterious prophet Si-Osiris whose wondrous birth matches that of Noah and others. Guided by his father, this Wunderkind journeyed to the celestial court and, like Enoch and others, "entered the seventh hall and saw Osiris upon a golden throne."

Fifteen hundred years later, this prophet returns again, appearing as a superboy and superscribe in the royal court, where he overcomes the evil woman and her son and sends them packing to Nubia in an airship of his own invention. Like the Messiah, Si-Osiris returns in every "time of wickedness and vengeance." A Thoth figure, he is personified as Sia, "who bears the gods' book, he who is in charge of wisdom being great even Sia who is at the right hand of Re." "Sia," Faulkner notes, "is the personification of intelligence and understanding." He is also the Arabic Idris, who is Enoch. Thoth, like Enoch, is in charge of the rites of initiation, as "Lord of the Divine Words, Keeper of the Secret Knowledge that is in heaven and earth, the great God of the beginning . . . who established speech and writing, causing the temples to flourish." "This way was taught by Hermes (Thoth) and was interpreted by the prophet Bitus to Ammon the king when he found it written in Hieroglyphs. . . . He transmitted the name of God and it spread throughout the entire earth."

The stock Egyptian picture of the king mounting up to heaven in the vast updrafts of a cumulo-nimbus thunderhead is recognized today as referring to real natural phenomena that must have made an enormous impression. The mysterious cords or ropes often referred to by which one is carried up into the sky are interpreted by Wainright as meteoric trails, and he compares the ascensions of Moses and Elijah "in a thunderstorm," the latter with a "chariot of fire and horses of fire" to "the entry into heaven made by some of the early Pharaohs."

Indo-Aryan tradition fairly swarms with Enoch-figures, and the early Christians resented the competition with their own. "Stupid men regarded Zoroaster as a martyr," said Clement of Rome, "worshipped at his tomb, and said he had been carried up to heaven as the Friend of God in a heavenly chariot, they dared to worship him and cherish him as the Living Star." To go into Book of Mormon (1 Nephi 1:8 - 11) and other analogies would take us too far afield (though G. de Santillana finds very significant ties between Enoch and Quetzalcoatl), as would the frequent parallels with Enoch of various heroes of Classical literature, noted by scholars of the Renaissance and Reformation.

Pindar, in his ninth Olympian Ode, tells of the rebellion of men against God and the horrid convulsions of nature that followed, of Deucalion and the ark and of his son Japetus (Japheth), the ancestor of the Greeks. If ever there was a perfect description of a half-heavenly, half-earthly society, it is Pindar's picture of the Hyperboreans dwelling in a state of bliss atop "the inaccessible unattainable mountain." B. Z. Wacholder saw in Atlas, standing amidst the thunder between heaven and earth, "but a Greek adaption of Enoch" through Phoenician ties.

Zeus Greek mythology is an endless procession of familiarly recurring themes - the abominations of the ancients, the deeds of inspired holy men, upheavals of nature, fearful punishments and glorious ascensions, and so on, as Greek imagination and speculation suggest ever more combinations and embellishments of the motifs. Take, for example, the case of Aeacus. At a time when gods were mating with the daughters of men, Zeus, blasting the earth with fires from heaven, took the maiden Aegina to an uninhabited island and there begot Aeacus, causing the island to be peopled by turning its ants into humans and surrounding it with reefs so that no one could approach it. Others say that Aeacus himself led the people up onto the land where the prehistoric rites of all the Greeks were held atop a high mountain. He was the most pious man who ever lived, and was "held in such honor that men longed to keep their eyes on him . . . and join his holy company on the island of Aegina."

When mankind became treacherous and murderous the earth was smitten with a great drought, and the oracle said that only the prayers of Aeacus, who, incidentally, was married to a water-nymph, the daughter of Nereus [cf. Nir, brother of Noah in the Enoch-legends], could save the race. So he ascended the highest mountain, where "his prayers were answered by a loud thunderclap, clouds obscured the mountain summit that has ever since been an unfailing portent of rain." To this day the Athenians call it the cloud of St. Elijah, sure sign of a downpour. Aeacus, greatest of kings and leaders, also built the holy city of Dia (some say Troy), and many sources describe him (as others do Enoch) as one of the three judges of the dead (the other two being Michael and Elijah). His name, according to Worner, means "divine," and he is to be identified originally with Zeus.Thus we may see that Greeks have all the original building blocks, but they have admittedly lost the blueprints and never tire of trying to put the parts back together again in the proper order. I. E. S. Edwards says much the same thing about the Egyptians.

Hesiod's Theogony, the Greek Genesis, begins with rain upon the mountains with the chorus of Muses singing in the darkness "veiled in thick clouds" (lines 1 - 11). We are told of the revolt in heaven; of horrible conspiracies on earth with a race of giants rebelling against Kronos, who had earlier revolted against his own father, Uranus; of a land that emerged from the sea and how people went up on the new land and there celebrated the lascivious rites that produced the race of Titans by those who had been the children of heaven. (207ff.) Then comes a long genealogy of horrors and troubles that still afflict the earth (211 - 336), interrupted only by the righteous Nereus (the Nir of the Slavonic Enoch), from whom sprang a host of daughters who are most fair to look upon, and a generation of proud and cruel descendants. (240 - 69.) The next rebel is Zeus, who takes over the earth with his faithful companions, force and violence. Zeus has an ambivalent character. He is responsible for the afflictions of mankind on earth and yet he is still the god of heaven. The Greeks have more than a sneaking suspicion that their ancestors at an early time got off on the wrong track in their worship. All is not sweetness and light: "We can lie like truth," the holy Muses tell Hesiod, "but we can tell the truth when we want to." (27 - 28.) The idea that something went seriously wrong early in the human story is not out of place in religious people; one is reminded that the initiates of Qumran began their discipline with a solemn recitation of how their fathers had taken the wrong way, as indeed does the story of Abraham. (Abraham 1:5 - 7.)

Zeus calls a great council on Olympus (cf. the Watchers on Mount Hermon) to plan his war against the Titans. (389 - 403.) The first to join him was Styx, the lady of the oath, who gave him his power (397 - 403); but it is Hecate, the dark lady of the oaths, whom men and gods honor above all others, for it is she whose methods promise success to all - power and gain, authority and riches (411 - 52). Zeus and Hades were born together, and the birth pangs of their mother Rhea are the major upheavals of earth and heaven respectively. Kronos ate his children to prevent any of them seizing his power, but Zeus was saved by Earth's wise tricks and got the upper hand. The whole epic is a tale of horrendous crimes, conspiracies, oaths, and betrayals.

Next we hear of a new race, the line of Japetus (Japheth), who, with the daughter of Oceanus, begot Atlas, Meoetius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. Meoetius was blasted for his pride and ambition; Epimetheus was the first immortal to marry among the daughters of men and got what he deserved, his wife being Pandora (cf. Lamech). Atlas and Prometheus suffered the same afflictions between heaven and earth for showing too much affection toward the human race. Hesiod tells of the Flood (775ff.) as well as the great burning at the end of the world (845ff.), and of the city of perfect peace and harmony that exists somewhere suspended between heaven and earth where Charis and Himeros (all that is lovely and desirable respectively) have their dwelling (63 - 64).

The leader and hero-ancestor of the Greeks, according to Hesiod, is Prometheus, the son of Japheth. Some Jewish doctors associate him with Adam and indirectly with Enoch,158 and the recently discovered Apocryphon of John, No. 3, says that the fall of the first Archon was revealed to Noah by Pronoia and Epinoia, "Foreknowledge" and "Reflection," whose names perfectly match those of Prometheus (Fore-thought) and his brother Epi-metheus (Hind-sight), who taught the people at a time when "darkness was poured out over all that was on earth." Note that the time of wickedness was not the first such period, even as we read in Moses 5:13 - 16 of the great time of evil even before the days of Cain.

The Prometheus of Aeschylus takes place at the ends of the earth (line 1): no wholly human character appears in the play. Prometheus is being crucified for the crime of showing too much affection (philanthropia) for the human race and betraying the secrets of heaven to mortals. (Lines 28 - 38, 104ff.) The once heavenly Zeus has in his ambition become cruel and tyrannical; only Prometheus has the courage to resist him and champion suffering mankind. The chorus enters in a spaceship - an aerial chariot - weeping and shedding their tears upon the mountains. We learn from them that Zeus, for all his ferocity, is still the president of the Blessed Ones, and Prometheus prophesies that he and Zeus will one day become loving friends again.

Prometheus tells of the war in heaven and how he changed sides and brought men a hope of salvation that frees them from fear, compared with which gift the accompanying gift of fire was merely a bonus. (291ff.) He himself appears as one who must suffer and be raised up on high in order to redeem the race. (269.) The leader of the chorus, Oceanus, arrives on a winged horse, which he calls a "swift-winged bird." Why the ocean here in the tops of the mountains? It is because his presence presages the Flood. His opening speech is quoted by Paul: "Do not kick against the pricks!" Oceanus says he is bringing the solution to the whole problem, as indeed the Flood was. Hearing him, the chorus sheds rain-tears while all Asia weeps , the seas are in turmoil, the waters are troubled (431ff.), and the sky and the earth's volcanoes throw fiery bolts at each other.

Prometheus is depicted as the great teacher, the bringer of knowledge and intelligence to the human race, and again he supplies a line to the scriptures when he says of mankind, "Having eyes they saw not, having ears, they heard not." He tells how he has taught them astronomy, mathematics, medicines, technology, divination , and like Enoch announces that he has been promised the right to God's throne . But the human race lies in darkness as the maiden Io enters describing the drought and desolation of the seas. The girl wheedles the Great Secret out of Prometheus (just as Pandora did of his brother Epimetheus). Prometheus reports to Io his universal vision of all the earth ; he knows what happens from beginning to end and prophesies the overthrow of Zeus by his own folly for seeking to marry a mortal woman . He tells Io that her wanderings will end in Egypt, where she will beget a king from whom fifty maidens, five generations removed, will flee from their fifty Egyptian cousins and murder all but one, who will beget Heracles the Deliverer. The chorus prays not to be wedded "to any bridegroom who descends from heaven!" and declares mixed marriages to be the great source of misery and disaster.

Prometheus remarks that just such a marriage will overthrow Zeus, and then he describes the great upheavals of nature with the waters of the Flood out of control. (907 - 35.) Hermes the oath-maker comes to persuade Prometheus to listen to reason and come back to the court of Zeus, but Prometheus refuses, saying he has already seen two tyrants fall and knows that Zeus is the next in line. Hermes tells Prometheus that he can hope for no relief unless some God of his own free will offers to suffer for him and descend below all things. Prometheus declares himself willing to abide his deliverance rather than yield to the enticing offer held forth by Hermes as the personal representative of Zeus. Hermes, warning against the coming destruction, says that Prometheus and the Chorus can blame only themselves for what is about to happen to them; and as he departs, the whole universe is thrown into confusion as "the sky mingles with the sea," and all that remain are the basic elements of earth, sky, water, and fire.

There are other versions of these sad events in the myths and legends of many people, but by now it should hardly be necessary to multiply examples or to point out parallels to the reader. Of comparative studies there is no end, but where do they lead us? What can we say for sure about Enoch? For one thing, that the Enoch story is not just another myth. More than two thousand years ago, able scholars were trying to account for the common Flood story and the Enoch figure found throughout the ancient world; with the progress of modern research, Enoch, instead of dissolving as so many figures have done in the light of science, has become progressively more real, and the old familiar claims to his hoary antiquity do not vanish at the touch of modern research but do just the opposite. "Curiously," writes B. Z. Wacholder, "it is now generally agreed that the link between the Babylonian traditions and Genesis was much more profound than conceived either by Pseudo-Eumolpus or Alexander Polyhistor," two sound and competent scholars of the second or third century B.C.

As Enoch's base is spread ever broader on the map and deeper into the past, its importance for Jews, Christians, and Moslems becomes more evident and more baffling: "The relationship between Luke and the Enoch tractate becomes more and more of a puzzle to me the more I think of it," writes one eminent scholar. "Was the relationship in question more than a literary one? Was Luke personally acquainted with the man who translated 1 Enoch? Or was he perhaps himself this man?" Luke himself as one of the transmitters of the old Enoch text! Bold speculation indeed, but for such surprises the student must now be prepared.

In 1835, the Latter-day Saints were told that all things contained in the Book of Enoch were "to be testified of in due time." (D&C 107:57.) Meantime, they had been given a preview in chapters 6 and 7 of the book of Moses. The Pearl of Great Price might well be called the Book of Six Testaments, namely: (1) the Book of Moses, including the Visions of Moses and the Writings of Moses, designated in the ancient manner as "the words of God which he spake unto Moses" (Moses 1:1); (2) A Revelation of the Gospel unto Our Father Adam, excerpted from his Book of Rememberance and quoted in (3) the Prophecies of Enoch; (4) the Book of Abraham Written by His Own Hand upon Papyrus [this is the title of the book after the ancient fashion, not merely the colophon of one particular manuscript only]; (5) an Extract from the New Testament, "being the 24th Chapter of Matthew," also called "the Little Apocalypse" and with equal propriety "the Little Enoch"; (6).

Without exception these are all parts of larger writings - extracts and fragments. The same holds true for the Book of Mormon, containing "an abridgment of the record of the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites" with "an abridgment taken from the Book of Ether also." (Title page, Book of Mormon.) The abbreviated and fragmentary nature of all these writings should be emphasized; every one of them is only a sampling, but in each case a large enough sampling to permit extensive comparison with ancient writings claiming the same authorship and thus establishing their right to serious attention. The repetition of the same themes in all of them is a mark of authenticity, for not only does all authentic apocalyptic writing tell the same story, but even secular history follows patterns to such a degree that throughout the ages the ever-recurring events of sowing and harvest, coronation and conquest, marriage and burial, war and peace, and so on, have been endlessly rehearsed in set ritual cycles all over the world. The many parallel passages we have cited from sources far removed from each other in time and place may once have raised eyebrows; yet any thought of plagiarism by Joseph Smith is out of the question, and if there is one thing that recent manuscript discoveries have made clear for the first time, it is that ancient texts of the greatest importance have been preserved throughout thousands of years of copying with almost uncanny accuracy. Even more impressive is the dawning realization of the immense age and historical plausibility of those legends found throughout the world to which Enoch holds the key.


* "The Enoch Figure" was originally prepared for inclusion in "A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch," which appeared in the Ensign from October 1975 to August 1977.

1. Aside from brief genealogical notes, all that the Bible tells us about Enoch is that "he walked with God, and was not" (Genesis 5:25), and that he prophesied the coming of the Lord to execute judgment (Jude 1:14).

2. Quoted from G. W. Anderson, in Encyclopedia Britannica (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1973) 8:605.

3. R. Eisler, Iesous Basileus ou Basileusas, 2 volumes (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1930) 2:32, 46 - 52, 102 - 3; M. J. bin Gorion, Die Sagen der Juden, 5 volumes (Frankfurt am Main: Rutten u. Loening, 1926) 2:285.

4. A Caquot, "Pour une étude de l'initiation dans l'ancien Israel," in C. Bleeker, ed., Initiation (Leiden: Brill, 1965), p. 121.

5. B. Davies, A Compendious and Complete Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament (Andover: W. F. Draper, 1882), p. 220.

6. C. von Orelli, "Enoch," in S. M. Jackson, ed., The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 15 volumes (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1977) 4:148.

7. Caquot, "Pour une étude," p. 121.

8. Ibid., p. 121; von Orelli, "Enoch," p. 148.

9. Caquot, "Pour une étude," p. 121.

10. A. van der Born, "Henoch," in H. Haag, ed., Bibel-Lexikon (Zurich: Benziger Verlag, 1968), p. 711.

11. Ibid.

12. Journal of Discourses 18:303.

13. Ludwid Blau, "Metatron," in Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 volumes (N.Y.: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1904) 8:519.

14. G. H. Box, "The Hebrew Book of Enoch," in Jewish Quarterly Review (hereinafter JQR) 7(1895): 592.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., p. 583.

17. L. Blau, "Metatron," p. 519.

18. K. Kohler, "The Pre-Talmudic Aggada. II. C. The Apocalypse of Abraham and his Kindred," JQR 7 (1895): 592.

19. A Jellinek, Bet ha-Midrash (hereinafter BHM), 6 volumes, (Jerusalem: Wahrmann Books, 1967) 5:171.

20. M. Black, "Eschatology of the Similitudes of Enoch," Journal of Theological Studies, NS 3 (1952): 6 - 8.

21. Cf. Lehi. Such elect societies are typified as "Rekhabite." Eisler, Iesous Basileus 2:68, 171, 242ff., etc.; U. Mauser, Christ in the Wilderness (London: SCM Press, 1963), ch. 2.

22. Moses 6:21ff., 36; Van Andel, De Structuur van de Henochtraditie en het Nieuwe Testament (Utrecht: V. H. Kemink, 1955), p. 61.

23. Moses 7:44.

24. Moses 7:41, 44, 49 - 50.

25. D&C 107:48.

26. Moses 6:34.

27. Moses 7:13, 19.

28. Van Andel, Structuur, p. 119. As Noah preaches the first end, so Enoch Redivivus preaches the second end of the world (25); both take a special position between heaven and earth (29); Noah as Preacher of Righteousness was identified by the early Christians with Enoch (83), etc.

29. Ibid., p. 117.

30. Ibid., pp. 41 - 42.

31. R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912), xlvii.

32. F. G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Papyri (London: Emery Walker Ltd., 1941) fasc. VIII, Enoch and Melito 8.

33. So A. Dillmann, cited in G. B., "Enoch," in J. -P. Migne, Dictionnaire des Apocryphes, 2 vols. (Paris: J. -P. Migne, 1856) 1:395; thus Lagrange, cited by J. B. Frey, "Apocryphes de l'Ancien Testament," in L. Pirot, Dictionnaire de la Bible (Paris: Letouzey et Ane, 1928) 1:368.

34. A. Jellinek, BHM 3:32 - 33; frg. XIV, 155 - 60; 2:83 - 108, 114ff.

35. R. Graves and R. Patai, Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis (New York: McGraw Hill, 1964), p. 119.

36. M. Black, ed., Apocalypsis Henochi Graecae (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), x:20; 106:18.

37. Apocryphon of John, No. 1, 73:7.

38. N. Avigad, Genesis Apocryphon (Jerusalem: Magnes Press), 1956), p. 19.

39. J. C. Trevor, "Identification of the Aramaic Fourth Scroll from 'Ain Feshkha,'" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 115 (October 1949): 9 - 10, n.4.

40. The story is told in the Greek Enoch (Black, Apocalypsis, pp. 10, 12 - 13, 18, and Kenyon, Chester Beatty 106:1 - 107:2), and in the Genesis Apocryphon.

41. Secrets of Enoch, 22ff., in Andre Vaillant, ed., Le livre des secrets d'Hènoch (Paris: Institut d'études Slaves, 1952), pp. 72, 77. The story is repeated a generation later in the Apocalypse of Adam, where it is Noah who doubts the legitimacy of his child, swearing with an oath, "This race was not begotten of me!" for which God rebuked him. (Apocalypse of Adam 71:116ff.)

42. Secrets of Enoch, 22ff., in Vaillant, ed., Le livre des secrets, p. 72.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid.

45. Secrets of Enoch 21 in Vaillant, ed., Le Livre des secrets, p. 66.

46. Secrets of Enoch 22 in Vaillant, ed., Le livre des secrets, p. 72.

47. BHM 4:132. When "Methusaleh served as High Priest, he explored all the earth, and searched out all those who believed in the Lord, and those who had changed, and he corrected them and converted them," as indeed did his father Enoch and his grandson Nir. (Secrets of Enoch 22.)

48. Book of Noah 108:1, in R. H. Charles, ed., Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963 - 64) 2:280.

49. Secrets of Enoch 23, in Vaillant, Le livre des secrets, pp. 80, 82.

50. Secrets of Enoch, Ms. R 23, in ibid., pp. 114ff.

51. Pistis Sophia, p. 24 (34). In the Book of Adam (G. B., "Le livre du combat d'Adam," in Migne, Dictionnaire des Apocryphes, 1:357 - 59), Melchizedek remains with the body of Adam "celebrating the ordinances forever" at the place in the center of the earth, where salvation will be accomplished (1:367); that spot is the site of Enoch's New Jerusalem (1:377), to which the kings of the earth come and bow down to Melchizedek, begging him to dwell with them.

52. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976), p. 181.

53. G. B., "Le livre du combat," pp. 375 - 76.

54. Secrets of Enoch 21, in Vaillant, Le livre des secrets, p. 66. Now this is exactly the sign that convinced the people of divine favor over Abraham on the altar, after which all the princes and the people came and bowed down to him. Discussed at length in Hugh W. Nibley, "The Unknown Abraham," Improvement Era, 72 (March 1969): 3, 76, 79—80, 82, 84; Midrash, Lekh Lekha.

55. G. B., "Le livre du combat," pp. 375 - 76.

56. K. Kohler, "The Pre-Talmudic Aggada," p. 588, where he also compares Abraham with Enoch and other patriarchs, pp. 592 - 94.

57. Thus, in Apocalypse of Abraham 1:1, Abraham's genealogy begins with Enoch; he, like Enoch, is shown the universal vision (9:61); spends forty days on a high mountain and is shown the fate of the human race (9:8); is caught up and taken on a cosmic journey (9:14); is overcome and has to be reassured in the presence of God (10:14); moved amidst vast meteorological and geological disturbances (11:1 - 6); is caught up as on wings to a high mountain and hence to heaven, where he beholds all things (12:1 - 9); has a bout with Satan in the manner of Moses (Moses 1); learns the story of Satan's fall and the sins of the Watchers (13:14); describes the throne of God where "naught but peace" is found (13:18), etc., ending with the vision of the return of the temple, the priesthood, and the celestial Zion (13:26ff.).

58. Zohar, Noah 65b.

59. Joseph Smith, Teachings, pp. 157, 168, 169.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid.

62. An important part of the book of Enoch is the "Book of Weeks," each "week" being a dispensation represented by an inspired central figure: Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Moses, the temple, Elijah, and the Chosen Ones of the seventh period. (Van Andel, Structuur, p. 25.) Since Enoch is the seventh figure of the first period, he is particularly involved in the seventh dispensation, that of the end; hence, Van Andel, ibid., p. 26, suggests that down through apocalyptic history, the "Enoch Church or Society, is a constant factor, with the figure of Enoch dominating throughout."

63. "Pour une étude," p. 121.

64. Above, note 3. The Primal Man who comes down to earth at the beginning and returns at the end is both Adam and Enoch in early Christian lore. (R. Bultmann, "Die Bedeutung der neuerschlossenen mandäischen und manichälischen Quellen fur das Verstandnis des Johannesevangeliums," Zeitschrift fur die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 24 [1924 - 25]: 104.) Adam and Enoch have the same pattern of years, marking their functional identity. (George Syncellus, Chronolog. 13; Book of Jubilees 3:32; Jellinek, BHM 5:172.)

65. Van Andel, Structuur, p. 126.

66. The Metatron in his capacity as Great High Priest is both Enoch and Michael. (E. Käsemann, The Wandering People of God, tr. Roy A. Harrisville and Irving L. Sandberg [Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1984], p. 215.) "It is not clear how he [Melchizedek] is to be distinguished from Michael," writes J. T. Milik, in "Milki-ṣedeq et Milki-reša dans les anciens écrits juifs et chr≥tiens," Journal of Jewish Studies 23 (1972): 95 - 144.

67. Gospel of Nicodemus 9:25.

68. The Wandering People, pp. 213 - 15.

69. P. Mordell, "The Origin of Letters and Numerals according to the Sefer Yeṣirah," JQR 2 (1912): 580 - 81. On the widespread identification of Enoch with Elijah, see J. S. Soggin, "Enoc ed Elia come profeti escatologici nel folklore romanesco," Studi e Materiali, 30 (1959): 119ff. For many points of comparison, see H. P. Houghton, "The Coptic Apocalypse of Elias," Aegyptus 39 (1959): 179 - 210.

70. A. Wilmart and E. Tisserand, "Fragments grecs et latins," Révue Biblique 22 (1913): 186 - 87, being Evang. Barthol. 1:16 - 17 (GK. frg.).

71. Gospel of Nicodemus 9:25.

72. Geo. Cedrenus, "Historiarum Compendium," in J.-P. Migne, ed., Patrologiae Graecae (hereinafter PG) (Paris: Freres Garnier, 1894) 121:476, says they will lie three days unburied on the very spot where the Lord was crucified; F. Tempestini, "Livre d' Adam," in Migne, Dictionnaire des Apocryphes 1:167; J. G. Davies, He Ascended to Heaven (New York: Association Press, 1958), p. 16.

73. Mark 9:11 13; Matthew 17:10 - 13. The identity of Enoch-Enosh and John the Baptist is treated at length by Eisler, Iesous Basileus 2:101, 439, 445, 736.

74. Ibid. 2:18ff.

75. Copric Manichaean Manuscripts (Berlin, 1960), I, 47.

76. Gospel of Philip 104:3, 110:9ff.

77. Cf. "Jesus" and "Joshua."

78. F. G. Kenyon, Chester Beatty Papyri, fasc. VIII, 9 - 10.

79. Joseph Smith, Jr., Joseph F. Smith, and Joseph Fielding Smith.

80. Van Andel, Structuur, pp. 35 - 36, citing Rudolf Otto.

81. Ibid., pp. 36 - 37.

82. Ibid., p. 118.

83. Noted by B. Lindars, "Re-Enter the Apocalyptic Son of Man," New Testament Studies 22 (1976): 58. While the great Catholic scholar C. Lapide found it "daring and improper" to speculate on Christ's activities after the Crucifixion, he conceded that "probably as some believe he was with Elijah and Enoch in paradise." (Commentaria in Sacram Scripturam, 21 volumes [Paris: Ludovicus Nives, 1858], 17:490.)

84. Leo Jung, "Fallen Angels," JQR 16 (1925 - 26): 312 - 13.

85. Eusebius, Praeparatio XI, 6, in PG 21:856 - 58.

86. Ibid., VII, 8, in PG 21:521.

87. G. Widengren, The Gnostic Attitude (Santa Barbara: Institute of Religious Studies, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1973), pp. 29 - 30.

88. L. Jansen, cited by Van Andel, Structuur, p. 75. What we have in the Old Testament, according to Van Andel, is a line of prophets who are also teachers and leaders of the people out of dire straits: Saviors of the people. The line runs from Adam to the Messiah through Abraham, Noah, Moses, and Elijah, each bringing through a "remnant" and each planting the seed for a later dispensation, all in fulfillment of the promise to Enoch, who remains the figure around whom the whole process crystalizes. (Van Andel, Structuur, pp. 25 - 27.)

89. B. Lindars, "Re-Enter," pp. 56, 57, 60.

90. R. Harris, The Odes and Psalms of Solomon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1909), p. 103.

91. Book of Zerubbabel, in BHM 2:54; Apocalypse of Paul (Syriac) in G. Ricciotti, "Apocalypsis Pauli syriace, " in Orientalia 2 (1933): 2ff.; Ishmael in BHM 5:xliii.

92. Van Andel, Structuur, pp. 17, 115: "He does not conceal himself behind the name, but he bears the name and the name bears him."

93. Ibid., p. 118.

94. Ibid.

95. M. Black, "Eschatology," p.7, cites Manson: "May it not be that we are here [En. 71] by the 'oscillation' between the individual and the corporate?" in which "Enoch . . . is regarded as the first human individual to embody the Son of Man idea, the nucleus of the group of the elect and righteous ones." Cf. ibid., p.6: "Enoch is not only translated and transfigured; he is declared to be the Son of Man, the Man par excellence, 'born unto righteousness,' in union with whom the righteous 'shall have peace and an upright way.'"

96. L. E. Keck, "John the Baptist in Christianized Gnosticism," in C. Bleeker, ed., Initiation (Leiden: Brill, 1965), pp. 185 - 87.

97. See H. Nibley, "The Forty-day Mission of Christ—the Forgotten Heritage," Vigiliae Christianae 20(1966): 1 - 24, reprinted in When the Lights Went Out (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1974), pp. 33 - 54.

98. Job 16:21; Ps. 12:8, 89:45; Eccles. 3:21, though all are subject to a wide variety of interpretation, of course.

99. So Vermes and Lievestad, both cited by Lindars, "Re-Enter," p. 53.

100. Ibid.

101. Ibid., pp. 65 - 67. W. Bauer, Das Johannesevangelium (Tubingen: Mohr, 1933), p. 40.

102. Ibid., p. 53, with italics added.

103. Van Andel, Structuur, p. 37. Upon reaching heaven, Enoch is exalted to the level of the Son of Man (1 Enoch 70 - 71); while as a reward, all the righteous may receive "the secrets of the Son of Man, who is still a mystery now" (1 Enoch 118). The standard mounting up to the seventh heaven, for example, of R. Ishmael, is an initiation, reflected in the Hechalot concept.

104. Ibid., p. 15.

105. E. de San Marco, "Henoch," in Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 volumes (Citta del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1951) 6:1407 - 8.

106. Odes of Solomon 36.

107. In S. Euringer, "Die Binde der Rechtfertigung (Lefafa Sedek)," Orientalia 9 (1940): 248, the name is Honake.

108. T. K. Cheyne, Jewish Religious Life After the Exile (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908), pp. 238 - 39.

109. Joseph Smith, Teachings, pp. 59 - 60: "For our own part, we cannot believe that the Ancients in all ages were so ignorant of the system of heaven as many suppose. Because the Ancients offered sacrifice it did not hinder their hearing the Gospel."

110. B. Wacholder, "Pseudo-Eupolemus: Two Greek Fragments on Abraham," Hebrew Union College Annual 34 (1963): 92.

111. Ibid., p.97, n. 86; K. Koch, "Die Hebräer," Vetus Testamentum 19 (1969): 58; Van Andel, Structuur, p. 117.

112. W. W. Hallo, "Antediluvian Cities," Journal of Cuneiform Studies 23 (1971): 64.

113. A. Caquot, "Pour une étude," p. 121. C. von Orelli, "Enoch," p. 148, notes that Enmeduranki has Enoch's solar affinities calendar, holy city, and so forth.

114. S. Mayassis, Mystères et Initiations (Athens: B.A.O.A., 1961). p. 154.

115. Ibid., p. 181; cf. p. 175 on Hammurabi as such an Enkifigure.

116. W. M. Clark, "The Righteousness of Noah," Vetus Testamentum 21( 1971): 261, giving references.

117. C. von Orelli, "Enoch," p. 148, notes that there has been the usual confusion of Noah and Enoch in the Babylonian version, in which the Babylonian Noah is translated to heaven like Enoch while "by analogy [with Noah] it was assumed that Enoch instead of Noah was meant."

118. M. Black, "Eschatology," p. 5, citing L. Jansen and R. Otto.

119. J. G. Davies, He Ascended to Heaven (New York: Association Press, 1958), p. 17.

120. L. Matous, "Die Urgeschichte der Menschheit im Atraḫasīs-Epos in der Genesis," Archiv Orientální 37 (1969): 5. Kraeling finds the two versions reflected in the P and J texts of Genesis: "In P's Enoch we seemingly have the whole biography of the Babylonian Flood here in nuce," whereas the hero of the other version is Terah, whose "name could be an abridgement of Atra-asīs or Atar-asīs." (E. G. Kraeling, "The Earliest Hebrew Flood Story," Journal of Biblical Literature 66 (1947): 292.)

121. Kraeling, "The Significance and Origin of Genesis 6:1 - 4," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 6 (1947): 193 - 94, discussing Phoenician and Greek ties especially with regard to the Giants.

122. Gilgamesh Epic, I.i, 5 - 9.

123. "The Story of Baal and Anat," 67:11:10ff, in C. Gordon, Ugaritic Literature (Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1949), p. 36.

124. J. Gray, The Legacy of Canaan (Leiden: Brill, 1957), pp. 47 - 52ff., with "perpetual tension between fertility and drought, " p. 56.

125. Gray, The Legacy, p. 148.

126. C. H. Gordon, Before the Bible (N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 135. As in the Adam-Enoch literature, we see the hero lying helpless on the ground at the mercy of Satan-Mot, while his wife tries to revive him (Gray, The Legacy, pp. 6ff.); again he is smitten when the adversary comes to "challenge him to a final combat" (pp. 73 - 74) and must suffer in expiation for his brother's blood making him also a Cain-figure (pp. 75 - 76).

127. Pyr. Text No. 309; 250: "I have come to my throne, which is for the spirit, I unite hearts, O you who are in charge of wisdom, being great, I become Sia, who bears the God's book, who is on the right hand of Re. . . "a typical Enoch passage. (R. Faulkner, Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969), pp. 61, 96.)

128. Ph. Derchain, Le Papyrus Salt 825 (Brussels: Academic, 1965) 1:137; 2:1, with much more to the same effect.

129. E. Hornung, Der Eine und die Vielen (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchsgesellschaft, 1973) p. 142; Adriaan de Buck, The Egyptian Coffin Texts, 7 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956) 6:344.

130. Faulkner, 58ff., from which our quotations are taken.

131. Some are discussed by K. Kohler, "The Pre-Talmudic Aggada," p. 592ff.

132. L. Speleers, Les Textes des Cerceuils du Moyen Empire Egyptien (Brussels: n.p., 1946), p. xxvi.

133. E. A. W. Budge, Book of the Dead: Papyrus of Ani (New York: G. W. Putnam's, 1912), p. 3, plate 29; 2:562ff.

134. Texts are full of navigational terms suggestive of the Flood, for example, 1336: "The sky weeps for you, the earth quakes at you. . . and you ascend to the sky as a star."

135. J. Zandee, "Sargtexte, Spruch 75," Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache 99 (1975):52 - 54. de Buck, Coffin Texts 4: 180d;6:32k;7:187b.

136. A. H. Gardiner, Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1910), col. V(pt.ii): 11,5 - 22. So also PT 521.

137. T. Hopfner, Fontes Historiae Religions Aegypticae (Bonn: A. Marci u. E. Weberi, 1922 - 25) p. 391:38.

138. Ibid.

139. F. L. Griffith, Stories of the High Priest of Memphis (Oxford: Clarendon, 1900), pp. 145 - 47; Plutarch, de Iside 13.

140. Ibid., p. 153, with Thoth (Enoch) standing at the right side of the throne keeping the record while Anubis on the other side brings up the dead for judgment.

141. Ibid., pp. 205 - 6, 201.

142. Pt 309; 250: "I have come to my throne, which is for the spirit, I unite hearts, O you who are in charge of wisdom, being great, I become Sia, who bears the God's book, who is on the right hand of Re." a typical Enoch passage. (R. Faulkner, Pyr. Texts, pp. 61, 96.)

143. In G. Vajda, "Idris," in Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden: Brill, 1971) 3:1030, Idris is identified "most frequently with Hanokh, more rarely with Elijah (llyas)," and by the Shi'i with Elisha as well; also he is Hermes. The Enoch quotation known to the Middle Ages was attributed to Enochus philosophus qui lingua Arabica cognominatur Edris, cit. in "Enoch," in Migne, Dictionnaire des Apocryphes 1:397.

144. Prayer of Kheriuf, in G. Roder, Urkunden zur religion des Alten Aegypten (Jena: E. Diedrichs, 1915), p. xxv.

145. Iamblichus, de Mysteriis 8:5. Like Setme's Book of All Knowledge and Power (Griffith, Stories, p. 20), hidden in the depths of the sea, even so Adam's Book of Razael (the Divine Secret) was thrown into the sea by envious angels and recovered by Rahab "the Celestial Prince of Egypt" in a later dispensation. (L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, 7 volumes [Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1909] 1:156.) Neferhotep, a pharaoh of the XII I dynasty (1785 B.C.), reports in an inscription how he said to his courtiers, "My heart yearns to see the records of the primal time of Atum (Adam), unfold them for me for a thorough investigation; help me to know what God is in his true form." M. Pieper, Die Grosse Inschrift des Konigs Neferhotep (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1929), p. 73, Text Roman I lines 3 - 5.

146. J. Spiegel, "Das Auferstehungsritual der Unaspyramide," Annales du Service des Antiquités de L'Egypte 53 (1956): 379; G. de Santillana, Hamlet's Mill (Boston: Gambit, 1969), pp. 77 - 78.

147. E. A. Wainwright, "Letopolis," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 18 (1932): 168 - 69; cf. 2 Kings 2:11.

148. Clementine Recognitions, P. G. 1:1327. R. Otto has investigated the Indo-Aryan ties with Enoch. (Van Andel, Structuur, p.71.)

149. De Santillana, Hamlet's Mill, pp. 77 - 78, 360.

150. For example, the key expression "and he was not" may be detected in Livy, I, 16: "nec deinde in terris Romulus fuit"; in Diodorus, History 2:20: "Semiramis sese subduxerit tanquam migratura ad does"; Lysias, Orations 31:494: "Herakles ex anthropōn ephaisthē"; Homer, Odyssey Odyssey, 4:561: "For God took him." Other references are given in E. Rosemüller, Scholia in Vetus Testamentum (Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1810), 1:147 - 50. Josephus del., Antiquities 1:3:4, is disturbed, in fact at not finding the report of Enoch's passing in the official records.

151. O. Schroeder, "Hyperborer," Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft 8 (1905): 76, 80 - 84; quotation from p. 83.

152. B. Wacholder, "Pseudo," pp. 96 - 97.

153. E. Wörner, "Aiakos," in W. H. Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon der Griechischen und Römischen Mythologie, 7 volumes (Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1965) 1:109 - 10.

154. Ibid.

155. R. Graves, The Greek Myths, 2 volumes (Harmondsworth, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1960) 1:214.

156. Wörner, "Aeacus," pp. 113 - 14.

157. I. E. S. Edwards, The Pyramids of Egypt (Baltimore: Pelican Books, 1961), pp. 27 - 28.

158. BHM 5:xlviiif.

159. Apocryphon of John, no. 3, 37.

160. His punishment differs from typical Roman crucifixion only in being on stone instead of wood. He is "raised up on high" (1.277), "nailed" (21, 56) sleepless in a standing position (32), and pierced with a spear-head. (64).

161. Wacholder, "Pseudo," p. 93.

162. Aalen, "St. Luke's Gospel and the Last Chapters of I Enoch," NTS 13 (1967), 13.

163. These titles are found in the English Pearl of Great Price, published by F. D. Richards, Liverpool, 1851, p. 1.

164. "Written by his own hand" is typical of colophons to Egyptian books, as is the mention of the writing material, as in the Memphite "Shabaka" text, which we are told was written upon leather. This does not mean that the copies of Egyptian texts and drawings in the possession of the Church today are the actual first-hand manuscripts coming directly from Abraham to us. See H. Nibley, "As Things Stand at the Moment," BYU Studies 9:1 (Autumn 1968): 74 - 79.

165. K. Koch, Ratlos vor der Apokalyptik (Gerd Mohn: Gutersloher Verlag., 1970), pp. 20 - 24.

166. De Santillana, Hamlet's Mill, pp. 77 - 78, and G. de Santillana, The Origins of Scientific Thought (New York: Mentor Books, 1961), p. 20.

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